Who disagrees if Indonesia is a country rich in natural resources, including mining products? Yes, natural resources in the form of mining in Indonesia can indeed be said to be abundant and scattered in various regions. These natural resources can certainly be utilized for the welfare of the Indonesian people.
However, of course in utilizing these natural resources , the existence of values and the principle of eco-efficiency (economic efficiency) must be considered. That is, the energy and costs incurred to process the mining is commensurate with the mining results obtained.
A mine is said to be worth exploring if the cost of mining is calculated in accordance with the volume of mining goods, the benefits of mining goods, and the profit and loss under consideration. This is why, although many mining sites have been found, not all places have been managed.
This is more due to the lack of capital and expert factors that Indonesia has. To overcome this, the government invited foreign investors to help the development of mining. In addition, education for young workers in mining also continues so that the government will not need to depend on foreign investors.
To conduct mining management, the first thing that needs to be done is field research to find out areas containing mining material to be explored. If the potential is confirmed, exploitation or excavation or drilling will be carried out.
There are quite a lot of types of mines in Indonesia . If seen from its use, the mining material can be divided into three types, namely ore mining, energy and minerals. This time, what we will discuss is about the management of ore or metal mining in Indonesia, including the distribution of ore mining locations in Indonesia.
Ore or metal mining, including iron ore, bauxite, lead, nickel, copper, gold and silver.
1. Iron Ore
There are many kinds of iron ore managed in mining. Some types of iron ore include: lateritic iron ore, hematite magnetic iron ore, and iron ore titan.
- Lateritic iron ore, itsmanagement is found in South Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi.
- Hematite magnetic iron ore, management is in the Province of Central Kalimantan.
- Titan ore ismanaged in the areas of Cilacap Beach, Pelabuhan Ratu Beach, Lampung, South Sumatra, West Sumatra, North Sumatra, Jambi and Aceh.
The process of iron ore management was initially carried out by digging and then spraying with water. After being dug up and sprayed with water, it will produce iron concentrate, which can be further processed. In Indonesia, steel smelting plants are located in the Cilegon area, namely by PT Krakatau Steel.
2. Bauxite (Aluminum Seed)
Bauxite or aluminum ore is a type of mineral that is lightweight, strong, and does not rust. Bauxite mining in Indonesia is mostly produced in the Riau Islands, Bintan Island, Bintang Island and Singkawang.
Tin is one of the mineral products which is said to be very important in Indonesia. Tin has benefits, which is to be used in the manufacturing industry of cans, solder, printed letters, tubes, tinfoil, and others. Tin mining in Indonesia, can be found on the islands of Singkep, Bangka, Belitung, and also in the surrounding offshore areas.
Tin mining products on land are also called primary tin. Whereas the results of offshore tin mining are referred to as secondary tin. In Indonesia, a lot of secondary tin is produced. This secondary tin also became the third largest tin smelter after Bolivia and Malaysia .
Nickel kernels can be found in soil from peridotite or serpentite weathering. Nickel mining areas in Indonesia are scattered in various places, including: Mantang Island in Bone Bay, Halmahera Island, Gag Island in Irian Jaya, around Kolaka (Southeast Sulawesi) centered on Ponalo, and Verbeek Mountains are centered on Soroako.
Ore or zinc metal mining is found in several regions in Indonesia. These zinc mining locations include East Java, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, West Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi.
The process of processing zinc to become sheet zinc is usually done by private companies in big cities.
Diamond mining in Indonesia is commonly found in the area of South Kalimantan. Precisely, this diamond mine is located around the Kusan River and Riam Kanan Kiri. Diamond mining excavation, centered in the Simpangempat area (near Martapura) and carried out by PN Aneka Tambang.
Aside from Aneka Tambang’s professional and modern management, the local people also carry out diamond digging by panning. Diamond panning by famous people is in the area of Cempaka I (near Banjar Baru). In addition, there is also the City of Martapura which is a famous place for diamond rubbing in Indonesia.
Copper ore mines can be found in Cikotok (South Banten), Songkarapi (South Sulawesi), and Kompara (Irian Jaya) areas. New mined copper can be found in Irian Jaya, which is managed with capital from Japan and the United States.
Copper ore is processed in a factory in Tembagapura City, which stands at an altitude of 2,600 meters. The resulting copper concentrate has a content of 26%. The concentrate is transported to the port near the mouth of the Tipuka River using a pipeline that reaches 100 km in length. Then, many of these processed copper are exported to Japan.
8. Gold and Silver
Gold and silver mines in Indonesia are located in the Rejang Lebong area (Bengkulu) and South Banten (West Java). The gold and silver mining was carried out by PN Aneka Tambang in Cikotok. Then, the results will be transported to Jakarta, and re-processed by PN Logam Mulia to become gold or silver bars.