Dairy products. From the Latin lactĕus , dairy is that belonging to or related to milk. The adjective, applied to a food, refers to the fact that it is derived from milk (such as cheese or yogurt ).
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- 1 History
- 2 Features
- 3 Process
- 4 Function
- 5 Sources
The consumption of dairy products is believed to have started about 8,500 years ago. The nomadic tribes of the Neolithic were responsible for domesticating sheep and goats and initiating dairy production.
Currently, the majority of dairy products come from the cow . In any case, milk from sheep , goat , buffalo and other animals is also consumed . Due to their nutritional properties, dairy is a popular food worldwide.
Dairy is a group of foods made up mainly of yogurt , cheese and milk , the latter being the most important component of this group. It must be taken into account that all the foods made from it, except butter and milk cream, are part of this group.
Dairy products are a set of foods that, due to their nutritional characteristics, are the most basic and complete (balanced) in composition of nutrients. For example, milk contains carbohydrates , proteins , fats , vitamins, and minerals .
Milk and derived foods (generally obtained from milk processing and fermentation) are highly perishable and must be kept refrigerated. Therefore, it is important that the cold chain is maintained until the product reaches the final consumer.
Milk, butter or butter and cream or milk are dairy products without fermentation, which are obtained from the addition of nutrients, the separation of their fat contents or other processes. Among the fermented dairy products, yogurt and cheese stand out.
It should be noted that milk contains lactose, a disaccharide that is not tolerated by those who have deficiencies in the production of an enzyme known as lactase. This is why it is said that these people suffer from lactose intolerance.
The main function of milk and its derivatives is nutritious. Milk will provide the body with the main immediate principles, as well as vitamins and minerals:
- Proteins: milk proteins are of high biological value, since they provide us with all the necessary elements for the proper functioning of our body.
- Fats: in its composition are essential fatty acids. They are present as fine particles that, sometimes, as happens with the boil, gather together forming a layer on the surface: it is the cream or milk cream. By extracting the fat from this food we obtain the so-called skim products.
- Vitamins: especially vitamin A, D and those of the group B .
- Minerals: mainly calciumand phosphorus .