Croissant

Croissant Medialuna (baked bread) redirects here. For other uses of this term see Medialuna (disambiguation) The croissant (from French croissant, AFI: [kʁwa’sɑ̃], “growing”), 1 also abundantly written in its spelling without adapting croissant, and known as croissants and, in some countries in Latin America , as cachitos, crabs or cuernitos, is a piece of puff pastry of Austrian origin, made with phyllo dough, yeast and butter (sometimes replaced by margarine).

 

Summary

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  • 1 ETYMOLOGY
  • 2 HISTORY AND LEGENDS
  • 3 VARIED FILLINGS
  • 4 MISCELLANEOUS
  • 5 INGREDIENTS
  • 6 PREPARATION
  • 7 TIPS AND TIPS
  • 8 NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION
  • 9 NUTRITIONAL DATA
  • 10 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 11 Sources

ETYMOLOGY

Croissant in French means crescent, in the sense of “lunar crescent quarter” (crescent phase) and refers to the shape of the bun, not the fact that the dough grows as it ferments.

HISTORY AND LEGENDS

The custom of making curved crescent-shaped cupcakes dates back to an ancient Arab tradition , which continues today in sweet cakes such as the tchareke from Algeria or the kaab el ghzal from Morocco . The crescent is also a recurring emblem of the ancient Ottoman Empire , from the Maghreb to Turkey and even Pakistan . The origin of the croissant would come from a Viennese adaptation of that symbol, but the events that gave rise to the croissant have more to do with legend than with proven historical reality. The authors only agree that it appeared in Vienna .

The most popular legend tells that the Croissant was born as one of the festive acts when Vienna was saved from the Ottoman site at the end of the 17th century . In 1683, after conquering most of the regions on the banks of the Danube , Ottoman soldiers under the command of the Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa besieged Vienna , which after Constantinople would have been the first major conquest in Europe .

After several unsuccessful assault attempts, the Turks decided to attack Vienna by surprise with a new strategy. They thought of undermining the terrain and thus avoiding the walls but acting only at night. The bakers, who were working at that time, realized the threat from the continuous noise and raised the alarm in such a way that in the end it was the defenders who took the Muslim troops by surprise, forcing them to back down. After the Austrian troops of the emperor Leopold I , under the command of the King of Poland Jan III Sobieski, they finished expelling the enemy army from the country. The emperor is said to have decided to decorate the Viennese bakers for the valuable help offered. These, in gratitude, made two loaves: one with the name of “emperor” and another Halbmond, in German: “half moon”, ancestor of the current croissant, as a mockery of the Ottoman flag’s half moon.

Another legend places the invention in the same context but attributes it to Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki (popularized as Franz Georg Kolschitzky in German), a Polish businessman settled in Vienna. At a time when the besieged Viennese were about to surrender, he managed to break through the fence of the Ottoman army to meet with Charles V of Lorraine and learn about the military situation. Back inside the city, he convinced the authorities to persist in his resistance by informing them that the arrival of the troops of the King of Poland was expected. Kulczycki is today a hero in Vienna. It is also known for having introduced coffee to Europe just after that victory over the Ottomans, coffee that it recovered from the merchandise abandoned by the Ottoman army in their flight. To celebrate the victory, he served it for the first time accompanied by crescent-shaped cupcakes, the so-called Kipferl.

The Kipferl would be the ancestor of the croissant, of which it only had the form and not the composition, but its existence dates back to the 13th century . Its introduction into France dates back to 1838 or 1839, when an Austrian officer, August Zang , opened a Viennese bakery in Paris.at 92 rue de Richelieu in Paris. The success of their kipferl and kaisersemmel (Viennese bread) was so enormous that it was soon imitated by many. The word “croissant” first appears in the French Littré dictionary in 1863, and the first recipe was published in 1891, with another type of dough. The recipe for the first puff pastry croissant was published in France in 1905 and will be published in the 1920s. The gastronomic Larousse includes it for the first time in 1938. The French would make it traditional in their country, and

It is a typical food of the French breakfast.

VARIED FILLINGS

The croissant can be cut horizontally at half height to open and fill it. Some of its possible fillers are:

  • Chocolate croissant
  • Cream croissant
  • Ham croissant
  • Cheese Croissant
  • Croissant in frankfurt
  • Sobrasada croissant
  • Almond croissant
  • AREQUIPE croissant
  • Longaniza Croissant
  • Dulce de leche croissant

MISCELLANY

Croissant should not be confused with other types of croissant-shaped Austrian cupcakes, but with completely different manufacturing processes and ingredients. We refer to the Vanillekipferl, flavored with vanilla, the Mandelbögen, smaller and flavored with almonds, the Mohnbeugel based on a paste rich in poppy seed, or the Nussbeugel with pasta with walnuts and honey.

The croissants is one of the cakes in Uruguay , bills in Argentina and sweet in Chile , most popular; in the latter country, they are even considered typical in the cities of Valdivia and Valparaíso . Being many times prepared with animal fat instead of butter or margarine; that is why there are two types of typical croissants among Argentines: the fat and the butter. The fat one is generally made with lard, which gives it a different flavor. A large crescent (almost three times larger than the common crescent) receives the name of “sacramento” with which, when cut horizontally into two halves, sandwiches are prepared (generally with a feta (slice) of ham and one of cheese) medium hard). This variety of sandwiches in Uruguay is called a stuffed croissant.

INGREDIENTS

  • 1 / 2kg. of flour
  • 75 gr. of sugar
  • 2 eggs
  • 50 gr. of butter
  • 25 gr. of yeastbakery
  • Salt
  • 75 ml. of milk
  • 75 ml. of water
  • 200 gr. of butter.

ELABORATION

We sift the flour and divide it into two heaps, one small and the other large. We mix the little one with the yeast and the warm water . We leave to ferment in a bowl. The other heap of flour is mixed with sugar , eggs , salt and milk. We combine with the previous dough, already fermented, and knead well for about 10 minutes. We form a ball and make two cuts in the shape of a cross. We let it sit. We stretch the tips of that star and add the butter. We close the dough as an envelope. Now we crush it with a rolling pin. We fold on itself and stretch again. We wrap the dough in plastic wrap and leave until the next day. We stretch the dough again and cut it in two. Now we cut some triangles of about 7 cm. On one side of the triangle we make a cut of about 2 cm. and we open it a little bit. We roll it from the base to the tip, stretching the dough a little. We will have some cylinders to which we will have to form a croissant. We moisten them until they double in size. We paint with egg and bake about 15 minutes at 200 degrees.

TRICKS AND TIPS

Accompany them with jam or chocolate. They will be delicious.

NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION

Homemade candies are healthier than industrial ones. Despite this, it is a recipe that should not be abused since it is made with ingredients such as flour, butter or sugar, all of them with a high calorie content. Rice, meanwhile, will provide a good amount of complex carbohydrates. The vegetables used will add vitamins, minerals and antioxidant substances beneficial to the body.

NUTRITIONAL DATA

  • Calories: 227 kcal. / 100 gr.
  • Proteins: 18 gr. / 100 gr.
  • Fat: 17 gr. / 100 gr.
  • Carbohydrates: 0 gr. / 100 gr.
  • Glycemic index (GI): 0

 

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