The colonic polyps or rectum are circumscribed tumors or protrusions are macroscopically visible, projecting on the mucosal surface. They configure true neoplasms . They are generally benign and usually have no symptoms, but they can cause painless rectal bleeding.
They are abnormal growths growing in the lining of the large intestine (in the colon or rectum ) and prominently in the intestinal canal (lumen).
Some polyps are flat, others have a stem.
Polyps are one of the most common conditions that affect the colon and rectum, occurring in 15-20% of the adult population.
Although most polyps are benign, they can sometimes become cancerous.
Polyps can appear on the surface of the colon or rectum, but are most common on the left side of the colon (sigmoid colon) or in the rectum.
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- 1 Causes
- 2 Symptoms
- 3 Signs
- 4 Exams
- 5 Diagnosis
- 6 Classification
- 7 Treatment
- 8 Warning
- 9 Sources
Polyps of the colon and rectum are generally benign. They become more frequent with age in older people.
Over time, certain types of polyps, called adenomatous polyps, can turn into colon cancer . Another common type of polyp found in the colon is called a hyperplastic polyp, which usually do not develop colon cancer .
Polyps larger than 1 cm have a higher risk of cancer than polyps that are smaller than one centimeter.
Risk factors include:
- family history of colon cancer or polyps.
- a type of polyp called a villous adenoma.
Polyps are also associated with some inherited diseases, including:
- Familial adenomatous polyposis.
- Gardner syndrome .
- juvenile polyposis.
- Lynch syndrome (HNPCC).
There are usually no symptoms.
However, the following may occur:
- abdominal pain (rare)
- rectal bleeding
- bloody stools
- fatigue associated with anemia
Most colorectal cancers start with polyps. At first, a polyp is a small growth in the wall of the harmless colon. However, it can become large, and it can become a cancer that grows and spreads.
Some common symptoms are:
- Rectal bleeding.
- Blood in the stool or on the toilet seat.
- A change in diarrhea of the seat shape or consistency. for example, or constipation that lasts for several weeks.
- Cramps in the stomach .
- A feeling of discomfort or a feeling of having a chair when it is not necessary.
- Weakness or fatigue
- Unjustified weight loss.
These symptoms can be caused by other diseases, so it is necessary to consult a doctor.
The rectal exam may reveal a polyp palpable by the doctor. However, the physical examination is generally normal.
The tests that show polyps are:
- virtual colonoscopy
- barium enema.
They are diagnosed either by looking inside the colon directly (colonoscopy) or by X-rays (barium enema).
There are three types of colorectal endoscopy:
1) rigid sigmoidoscopy (allows examination of the final 20 to 25 cm of the large intestine);
2) flexible sigmoidoscopy (40 to 70 cm of the colon are examined) and
Neither rigid nor flexible sigmoidoscopy require prior anesthesia or medication and can be performed in the doctor’s office, as there is no pain and minimal discomfort.
- Epithelial neoplastic polyp or adenomatous polyps or adenomas: colon tubular adenoma, tubulovillous adenoma and villous adenoma.
- Non-epithelial neoplastic polyp: leiomyomas, lipomas, neurofibromas and hemangiomas.
- Hamartomatous polyp: juvenile polyp, Peutz-Jeghers polyp.
- Inflammatory polyp: benign lymphoid polyp. They are not usually evil.
- Hyperplastic polyp: They are not usually malignant, but it has recently been discovered that they could be precancerous if they grow on the right side or ascending colon.
Over time, adenomatous colorectal polyps can lead to cancer and must be removed. In most cases, polyps can be removed at the same time as a colonoscopy. A follow-up colonoscopy should be done within 3 to 5 years to verify that there is no recurrence of polyps. Rarely, for polyps with a high potential for malignancy, a colectomy (removal of a part of the colon) may be recommended.
In a longer period of time, and colon polyps can turn into cancer and must be removed. In most cases, polyps can be removed at the same time when a colonoscopy is performed. For patients with polyps, colonoscopy should be performed with an interval of 3-5 years to see if other polyps have appeared.
In some situations this can cause the removal of part of the colon (colectomy).
To reduce the risk of colorectal polyps, some measures are necessary:
- A diet low in fat and high in fruits, vegetables, and fiber.
- Avoid smoking
- Avoid excessive alcohol consumption.
- Maintain a normal body weight.
Colonoscopy prevents colon cancer by removing polyps before they become cancerous.
People over the age of 50 would need to have a colonoscopy, which makes early diagnosis and treatment possible.