Coffee makers. They appear from the beginning of the XIX century . Before, coffee was mixed directly with boiling water.
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- 1 History
- 2 New devices
- 3 Types of coffee maker
- 4 Evolution
- 1 Patent
- 2 The Chemex coffee maker
- 5 Sources
Drinking coffee began as a custom of the nobility : the inventor of the coffee maker in the 18th century was the Earl of Rumford . It spread despite the war that the doctors declared. When Frederick I of Prussia was banned from coffee , he told them: “I already drink less, a jug a day.”
The complement of the coffee machine is the coffee grinder , with which the grain is ground to a specific size for each type of coffee machine.
Before the invention of filtered coffee, the only way to prepare coffee was “a la turca”, also called Turkish coffee.
To prepare a Turkish coffee we use a container in which we add the ground coffee we want, water and bring it to a boil. Later it is left to rest so that the grounds of the ground coffee are placed at the bottom and it is served.
This is certainly not the best way to make a good coffee (although today there are many people who continue to prepare it that way, and according to them it is the best method), since by boiling water many of the aromas of coffee are lost and also the flavor we get is usually quite sour.
After the invention of filtered coffee, a multitude of new devices began to be devised that generally used one of these two principles:
- Infusion: Ground coffee is placed inside a support that serves as a filter (a cloth bag for example) and is immersed in a container with water that is heated to prepare an infusion as is done with tea.
- Filtering: The ground coffeeis deposited in a container or support that serves as a filter (perforated container, paper or cloth filter , etc.) and very hot water is poured on it. In this way the water passes through the ground coffee, and falls into a lower container where it is collected after obtaining the taste and smell of the coffee.
From a chronological point of view these would be the most significant dates in the history of coffee machines:
- 1819. Laurens Blechschmied invents the first percolator.
- 1850. The French coffee pot or press is already very popular in France .
- 1901. Luis Bezzera patents the first espresso machine.
- 1919. Invention of the Neapolitan coffee maker.
- 1930. First models of vacuum coffee machines or Cona coffee machines.
- 1933. Alfonso Bialetti patents the Moka coffee maker or Italian coffee maker.
- 1945. A. Gaggia markets the first piston espresso machine.
- 1961. The Faema company presents the espresso machine with pump.
And the evolution of coffee machines continues today with, for example, single-dose coffee machines, or portable express coffee machines powered by compressed air, among others.
The invention was called “cafeolette”.
Types of coffee maker
Vacuum pot (1830), known by the name of vacuum pot or cona pot. It was invented in the 1830s by Loeff of Berlin.2
- Piston, piston, French or French presscoffee machine (1850), allows to prepare coffee in a simple way and keeping all the coffee oils, making it very smooth and delicious. Although this coffee maker was an Italian invention, it was popularized by the French, hence its name. The coffee needs to be ground with a large grain so that it does not go through the filter.
- Espresso coffee machine(1901), espresso or espresso makes it pass hot water, regularly 90 ° F at a pressure of 8-10 atmospheres for 20 to 30 seconds through very fine ground coffee, extracting its flavor and essence. The basic preparation of this coffee maker is espresso. The espresso machine was born in the early 20th century , thanks to the engineer Luigi Bezzera, in Italy , from where it spread to all of Europe.
- Percolator coffee pot(1919). Its name comes from the word “percolar”, which means passing a soluble substance through a permeable substance, especially for the purpose of creating a soluble compound.
- Vacuum coffee maker. Known by the name of vacuum pot or cona pot. It was invented in the 1830s by Loeff from Berlin
- Italian coffee maker or moka(1933), consists of two bodies that are twisted by the central part. The lower part is the water tank, which has a safety valve on one side and where a filter is placed with the coffee, in the form of a funnel. The upper part is the tank that will receive the prepared coffee. Boiling water releases steam, which increases the pressure inside the tank, causing the water to rise through the filter tube through the ground coffee, extracting its essence and flavor.
- Neapolitan coffee machine(or cucumella). Similar in appearance to moka coffee machines, it is used to prepare a very dense, tasty coffee, through a filter or drip. It is not an espresso coffee to use.
- Filter coffee machine(drip or percolator) (1961), consists of a tank of water that is heated and passes through ground coffee that is deposited on a paper filter or aluminum or steel mesh . The water slowly passes through the moderately ground coffee, and drops drop by drop by gravity into a pitcher. Usually the jar is glass and goes on a base or electric plate that keeps it warm. Ideal for preparing several cups of light or American coffee. It works with electrical energy.
- Turkishcoffee maker Coffee pot shaped like a pot, this type of coffee maker is very popular in Turkey, hence its name. This type of coffee maker uses non-soluble ground coffee and does not require filters. Because the way to drink it is for the coffee well to sink into the coffee maker and only the top part is consumed. Like this type of coffee, it is common to drink it with a glass of water to clean your teeth after drinking coffee.
Coffee beans were chewed for 400 years, from the time an Ethiopian goat herder named Kaldi discovered the properties of the plant in 850 AD. However, the trade did not offer a model coffee maker for the infusion from coffee powder to the introduction of the French coffee maker in 1800. During the previous centuries, in the many countries that already consumed enormous amounts of coffee, it was prepared by boiling the beans in water and passing the mixture through a filter designed for this purpose.
The French coffee pot, created by the pharmacist Descroisilles, consisted of two slender metal containers, which could be tin, copper or pewter, separated by a perforated plate that served as a filter. Around the year 1850 , French manufacturers presented the first enameled coffee pot.
The first North American adaptation of this coffee maker was patented in 1873 . The single chamber cylinder contained a filter that was advanced by pressing it through the mixture of coffee beans and hot water, thereby forcing the beans to settle to the bottom. Unfortunately, the diameter of the filters did not always match that of the container, and often the result was a poorly strained beverage. This problem exasperated a woman to the point of prompting her to invent a coffee maker that would work better.
In 1907 , the German Melitta Bentz began to experiment with different materials applicable between the two chambers of a coffee machine. A disc of cotton cloth, placed on the filter of the container, worked for some time, but the cloth did not take long to spoil.
In 1908 he discovered an almost perfect porous paper, by cutting a disc on a sheet of blotting paper, and with it the Melitta filter system started its way to commercialization.
The Chemex coffee machine
The search for the perfect cup of coffee continued tirelessly, and in 1940 the Chemex coffee machine was born, the fruit of the ingenuity of a German chemist, Dr. Peter Schiumbohm, who emigrated to the United States in 1939 , adapted a material of properties Well tested in scientific laboratories: Pyrex, heat resistant. He built a container to which he simply added an inverted conical top containing the filter paper, and a measure of finely ground coffee beans.
Corning Grass, the Pyrex distribution company, agreed to produce the Chemex coffee maker, but at that time the Second World War was unfolding, and the company informed Schiumbohm that they could not legally manufacture a new product without prior authorization from the War Production Department. .
Undaunted, the inventor wrote directly to President Roosevelt, heading his letter with the words “A king does not care about details. But a president even cares about details.” Roosevelt, a lover of good coffee, allowed the production of the Chemex coffee machine to begin.
Although Dr. Schiumbohm filed over two hundred patents for technological devices during his lifetime, none would achieve the success of the simplest of his inventions : the Chemex coffee maker.