Cloth . A fabric is a flexible laminar structure, resulting from the union of threads or fibers in a coherent way when interlaced or joined by other means. The industry that manufactures fabrics woven from yarns is generally called weaving.


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  • 1 How a fabric is made
  • 2 spinning
  • 3 The loom
  • 4 Types of fabrics
  • 5 Composition and structure of genres
  • 6 Classifications of tissues
  • 7 Properties
  • 8 History
  • 9 See also
  • 10 Source

How a fabric is made

The fabric is made of woven, braided, or felt type. The natural fibers most used to make fabric are: linen, wool, cotton, and silk. The most widely used synthetic is polyester.
The fibers are transformed into thread (they are spun), wound into cones, which are then placed next to the loom to weave the fabric.


To obtain the spinning, the fibers of the material are twisted together manually or using a spindle. This twisting produces short strand chains that together form a single body. The force with which they are twisted determines the characteristics of the tissue obtained. With little twisting, a smooth surface fabric is achieved. High twist produces hard, wear-resistant fabrics. Synthetic fibers are converted to yarn in the same way as natural fibers.

The loom

Weaving cloth requires a loom and rolls of thread with those colors that you want to incorporate into the cloth.
The loom is a wooden frame (frame), which allows to fix a set of parallel strands arranged vertically (lengthwise), which is defined as warp of the fabric. To start the fabric itself, horizontal threads (across the width) are interwoven, called: fabric weft. The number of threads per square centimeter used in the manufacturing process determines the type and weight of the fabric.

Types of fabrics

  • Acetate:. Silk-like artificial fabric made from cellulose acetate fiber threads. It does not shrink, it does not fade, it does not wrinkle.
  • Acrylics. Artificial fabric that resembles wool fabric. Sharp colors:
  • Alpaca. Fabric made with Alpaca wool fibers. Fine, silky and lightweight fabric.
  • Damascus. Reversible with wavy patterns.
  • Flannel. Smooth, with the satin surface that almost cancels the texture of the fabric. Dull finish. Dull finish. Made in a variety of weights. Shrink if not treated.
  • Raincoat. Crisp finish, dense, durable, wear-resistant fabric. Hard to iron, shines with use.
  • Gasa. Semi-transparent and light.
  • Denim. Blue, brown or dark gray, high twist fabric, for workwear. Thick, thin and raw.
  • Nylon. Synthetic material fabric resistant to abrasion and chemical action. It is elastic, easy to wash, shiny in appearance. It recovers its shape easily, it is not absorbent, it dries fast and it admits some types of dyeing.

Composition and structure of genres

All are based on two types of fibers: natural and artificial. The natural ones come from plants or animals; in this group are wool, silk and linen. Artificial fibers are produced by chemical processes; include polyester, nylon and acetate.

The combination of natural and artificial fibers produces mixed fibers that offer the best qualities of both. There is a very large variety of genres made from mixed fibers and each one behaves differently.

The genres are also classified by the mode used for their manufacture. All fabrics are woven, knitted or non-woven.

The most common is plain fabric such as muslin, poplin and taffeta. The denim and the raincoat are woven diagonally. Cotton satin is a satin fabric and knitwear also has different structures. The tricot or jersey is an example of plain knitwear. Felt is an example of a non-woven fabric.

Tissue classifications

Depending on how it is made
• Non-woven (Felts)

Woven • Plain or warp and weft (for example Demin, satin, gauze)
• Knitted fabric
• Warp
• Raschel
• Weft
• Jeans
• Double-knit ( for example Rib or rib, Interlock)


They are properties of fabrics that determine their quality and various uses.
• Air
permeability • Water permeability
• Tenacity (maximum tension that can be supported without breaking)
• Color
• Elasticity • Density (Weight per unit area)
• Thickness
• Temperature resistance


  • 13th century– The weaving industry develops in the city and throughout the Bisencio Valley. The wool farmers of Prarate specialize in their techniques and dedicate themselves to the Art of Calimala (a method of softening and beautifying cloths).
  • 14th century– The wool farmers of Prata meet at the Art of Wool Corporation, regulate their manufacture and the trade in cloth by means of statutes that are constantly renewed.

Francisco de Marco Datini (1335 – 1410) gives a great commercial push to the textile activity of the city. Wool fabrics reach many countries in Europe through the network of their commercial establishments, while, always through the Datini trade, precious wool and dyes arrive in Prato.

  • 15th century– Due to the commercial development started by Datini and his renowned expertise in the manufacture of fabrics, Prato enjoys a quiet and flourishing period. The important works of art commissioned by the most renowned Masters such as Felipe Lippi, Julián de Sangallo and Mino de Fiésole, are witnesses to the cultural advancement of the city.
  • 16th century– The looting of 1512, perpetrated by the Spanish militias, hits Prato’s economy hard.
  • 17th century– Despite an evolution in production techniques, especially dyeing, there is a period of crisis in the manufacture of wool.
  • 18th century– The economic policy of the Granducato of Tuscany, under the command of the Lorraine, facilitates the textile activity of Prata. The Chamber of Commerce is established to replace the Corporations. At the end of the century, the first important lanificio was created by Joaquín Pacchiani and Vicencio Mazzoni, who produced Levantine-style red hats for the markets of the Middle East. In support of the Lanificio, the Grand Duke established in 1788 a prize money on the hats sent. This is the first financial assistance for exports in favor of Prata manufacturers.
  • XIX century– Juan Bautista Mazzoni, a studious and highly valued mechanical technician, perfects spinning machines and plans some new ones. Thanks also to his work, the positive effects of the industrial revolution begin to be felt, the decisive fact of which is confirmed when, in the middle of the century, the process of regeneration of pieces of tailoring fabrics, fabrics and clothes begins to be used. used. This material, from various parts of the world, was carefully selected and mechanically transformed into the so-called “regenerated wool” that allowed to produce, mixed with virgin wool, carded fabrics of all kinds at competitive prices.

Since the sixties, machinery and technologies have been renewed in a decisive way; The use of regenerated raw materials is directed towards superior quality materials that come from recycling new pieces of clothing.


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