Citrus technical instructions. Practical material written synthetically and as clearly as possible to facilitate understanding of the cultivation process of the main citrus fruits produced in Cuba . Carried out by a group of authors from the Tropical Fruit Research Institute (IIFT) in its first edition in 2011. The text is structured in 10 chapters, in which they present a series of information and tables, which undoubtedly help the reader to better understand the topics. This edition has been funded by the European Union, within the framework of the “Local Support Program for the modernization of the Agricultural Sector in Cuba” (PALMA), implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).
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- 1 Synopsis
- 1 Argument
- 2 Contents
- 3 Source
Botanically, citrus fruits belong to the Rutáceas family , subfamily Aurantioideae . The fruits that are grown commercially belong to three main genera within this subfamily: Citrus , Fortunella and Poncirus . The most known species belong to the genus Citrus : Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck., Which groups sweet oranges, Citrus aurantium, L., bitter or sour oranges, Citrus reticulata, White, mandarins , Citrus limon Burmf., Lemons true, Citrus paradisiMacf., Grapefruit and Citrus aurantifolia Swing., Sweet and sour limes.
Most of the species of the genus Citrus are considered to be native to the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and the Malay Archipelago, and since then they have spread to numerous regions of the world. They were introduced to the New World in 1493 , during the second voyage of Christopher Columbus . Currently the citrus grown in a broad belt between 40 degrees latitude north and south, so consumed in many countries .
In Cuba , citrus fruits were one of the main economic items in the country. Currently, this crop presents a complex situation, given the economic difficulties it presents, the effects caused by hurricanes and drought, and the presence of high impact diseases in the region and in the country, which constitute a danger to plantations . It is necessary to establish a strategy so that they can recover the productive levels and return to being an exportable item.
The Technical Guide for the cultivation of citrus fruits that is presented today has been elaborated for the species that are cultivated in Cuba for commercial purposes: Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck ( oranges ), Citrus paradisi Macf. (grapefruit) and Citrus latifolia Tanaka (Persian lime). It also includes general aspects for crop management and specific aspects for each of these three species.
- Botanical description
- Seedbeds and nurseries
- Plagues and diseases
- Weed control