Chandler walnut variety, a very productive variety, is recommended for regions with late frosts. It wakes up late and is not affected by frosts. The flesh is white, its internal yield is high. In May, the leaves begin to awaken and harvest at the end of the 9th month. The internal yield is very high. Walnut Climate and Soil Requirements One of the most important qualities of the walnut tree is that it easily adapts to different soils and climates. Although the cultivation of the walnut tree depends on a long time, it is one of the most spreading fruit species in the world with the need for cooling for 400-1800 hours. Walnut is 1700 m above sea level. It spreads to high areas. Walnut, which is one of the mild climate fruit types, is sensitive to both high and low temperatures. In extreme summer temperatures, burns on the green peel, leaves and shrinkage of the fruits.
This damage starts at -36 ° C and becomes very severe at -43 ° C. If the end shoots of young walnut trees, which continue to develop until late autumn, are not fully mature, they are damaged at -10 ° C. In the early frosts of autumn at -9 ° C to -12 ° C, non-lignified shoots are damaged. Late spring frosts; It does more damage when the buds swell. Buds can withstand -3 ° C during closed period and -1 ° C during full blooming. Cold damage is more common during the flowering period. Walnut Sapling – Walnut Tree Soil Request Although walnut trees are not selective in terms of soil, they grow better in loose, filtered alluvial soils that do not hold much water, the ground water level is not higher than 2.5-3.0 meters.
It cannot grow in water-holding clay soils and stagnant watery places. The development of the walnut tree continues from the spring until the fruit ripens and falls to the ground. Walnut roots are pile rooted, and as they grow deep, deep and soft soils with moist lower parts are more suitable for cultivation. It develops well in deep soils that do not contain too much lime and do not hold water and maintain its moisture. When planted in fertile soils or in soils whose productivity is increased by cultural measures such as fertilization and irrigation, it is seen that the development of walnuts accelerates and the fruit yield increases. Although the walnut trees are more adapted to the valleys with plenty of sunshine in summers, mild winters and protected from cold winds, it is seen that they grow in harsh places when the garden is established considering the need for cooling, waking up and winter rest periods. One of the most important factors limiting walnut farming in terms of location selection is the groundwater level and the quality of the water.
Excessive moisture and stagnant water prevent the necessary oxygen from the roots, so root growth slows down and the development of the tree stops. The leaf veins take a light green color, the veins take a brown color, drying is seen on the shoot tips. Even if the high ground water level is not lowered by opening drainage channels, the tree dries completely within a few years. Although the seedlings in these gardens show no development deficiency and no symptoms, when the 5-7 year-old seedlings grow 5-6 m in height, the development pattern of the walnuts deteriorates and the trees start to dry, starting from the places where the ground water is higher in the garden. Walnuts are classified as medium fruits in terms of resistance to soil salt.
The salinity of the soil and water is important for walnut cultivation. Walnut Sapling – Walnut Tree Pruning The most suitable finishing system for walnuts is the ‘Modified pinnacle’ (Modified leader) system. Establishment of the training system should be completed in the first 2-3 years. – Yield pruning is of great importance in the upcoming years. It is necessary to avoid cutting thick branches in walnuts. However, the 0.5-3 cm thick branches on the tree should be removed. – It can also be taken from the thin branches on the plants during the development period. This prevents excessive removal of branches from the plant in winter. If thick branches need to be removed, the cut surface must be covered with vaccine paste.
The residues formed as a result of pruning must be collected and removed. Tip purchase should never be done. Because female flowers are formed at the ends of annual shoots. In pruning; in varieties that bear fruit on the side branches, the tip can be taken, not deep. In varieties with less tendency to bear fruit on the side branches, tip picking should never be done. Walnut Sapling – Watering Walnut Tree Although walnut is a drought-resistant plant, its yield increases with irrigation. Water has a positive effect on the development of the tree, its good internal formation and the formation of the fruit eye. – If irrigation is available, irrigation techniques such as flood irrigation and drip irrigation can be used. However, the point to be considered here is the breaking of the cream layer that will form in the garden after the gravity irrigation.
Also, it is necessary to be careful not to touch the root throat of the plant with irrigation water. Although it varies according to ecologies, the annual water need is 1300-1500 mm. Harvest Harvest time continues between the beginning of September and mid-October according to the regions and varieties. The most important criterion in determining the harvest date is that the Pericap is cracked and dried (1/3) and the fruit should be harvested with a Hygrometer when it contains approximately 15% moisture. fruits should be dried in the shade with their shell. During the harvest, the scar tissue should not be opened on the tree. Fruits that spill on the tree should be separated from their green outer shells as soon as possible and left to be established.