Bronchial adenoma. This name includes several types of tumors that affect the lung . They originate in the cells of the mucosa of the bronchi and their glands . They occur infrequently, as they correspond to only 1% of all lung cancer .
Although they were considered benign tumors, many of them are currently known to be malignant and can spread. They are classified as low-malignancy tumors and their mortality is low.
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- 1 Features
- 2 Causes, incidence and risk factors
- 3 Symptoms
- 4 Diagnosis
- 5 Signs and tests
- 6 Treatment
- 7 Forecast
- 8 Complications
- 9 Situations requiring medical assistance
- 10 See also:
- 11 Sources
Microscopically they are rounded formations of small size and very slow development that grow in the lumen of the bronchus , being able to obstruct it and cause irritative cough , bloody sputum ( hemoptysis ) or recurrent pneumonia in the same lung sector. Although the term bronchial adenoma was once used to refer to noncancerous (benign) tumors of the airways, these tumors, with the exception of adenomas of the mucous glands, are now known to spread to other areas of the body .
These tumors are highly variable malignant (cancerous) potentials, although most of them are low-grade malignant tumors, growing and spreading much more slowly than true lung cancer . Only adenomas of the mucous glands are truly benign (non-cancerous), lacking even the possibility of becoming malignant.
Causes, incidence and risk factors
These tumors grow slowly, rarely spread ( metastasize ), and their cause is unknown. This type of tumor tends to bleed or obstruct a lung or lung lobe.
- Bloody sputum
- Recurrent pneumonia
- Slow-resolution pneumonia
- Collapse of a lung lobeor segment
- Cough that lasts more than six weeks
Other symptoms that rarely occur with this disease are:
- Redness / flushing of the skin
Bronchial adenoma can remain undiagnosed for years due to the small size of the tumor and the slow growth pattern. This condition is disguised as bronchial asthma , chronic bronchitis , or bronchiectasis (localized dilation of an irreversible part of the bronchial tree, causing obstruction of air flow and impaired secretion clearance).
Signs and tests
- Chest x-ray
- Computed axial tomography
Standard treatment is removal of the tumor with surgery or endoscopy . Bronchoscope surgery can be performed if the tumor is small and limited to the airways. In this surgery, the tumor cannot be completely removed. Also, the chances of profuse bleeding are higher. Therefore, surgery for removal of the bronchoscopic tumor is only recommended in people who cannot undergo open surgery or video-assisted lung surgery due to other health conditions . The tumor can be removed through the bronchoscope using a laser. However, this method is not recommended as a primary mode of tumor removal and is generally used only for recurrent tumors.
The patient is usually completely cured with surgery . The ability of these tumors to spread can vary, but most have a good prognosis with surgical removal.
- Airway obstruction
- Spread of the tumor to the lymph nodesin the area (this may vary depending on the tumor)
Situations requiring medical assistance
- Bleeding ( hemoptysis)
- Breathing difficulty