The biomolecules are molecules that are present in all living beings. You could say that biomolecules make up all living things regardless of their size.
Each molecule (which constitutes a biomolecule) is made up of atoms . These are called bioelements . Each bioelement can be composed of carbon , hydrogen , oxygen , nitrogen , sulfur and phosphorus . Each biomolecule will be composed of some of these bioelements.
The main function of biomolecules is to “be a constituent part” of all living beings. On the other hand these must form the structure of the cell. It may also be that the biomolecules must perform some activity of relevant importance to the cell.
Types of biomolecules
Biomolecules can be classified into inorganic biomolecules such as water , mineral salts and gases, while organic biomolecules are subdivided according to their combination of specific molecules and functions.
There are 4 types of organic biomolecules :
Carbohydrates . The cell needs carbohydrates since they provide a great source of energy. These consist of 3 bioelements : Carbon , Hydrogen and Oxygen . According to the combination of these molecules, carbohydrates can be:
- Monosaccharides . They have only one molecule of each. Within this group are fruits. Glucose is also a monosaccharide and is present in the blood of living things.
- Disaccharides . The union of two monosaccharide carbohydrates will form a disaccharide. An example of this is sucrose found in sugar and lactose.
- Polysaccharides . When three or more monosaccharides are joined they will result in a biomolecule of carbohydrate polysaccharide. Some of these are starch (found in the potato or potato) and glycogen (found in the body of living things mainly in the muscles and in the liver organ).
See also: Examples of Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
Lipids . They form the membranes of the cell and are reserve energy for the organism. Sometimes these can be vitamins or hormones. They consist of a fatty acid and alcohol. They also have extensive chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms . They can only be dissolved in substances such as alcohol or ether. Therefore, it is not possible to dissolve these in water. They can be subdivided according to their specific function into 4 groups:
- Lipids with energy function . They are in the form of fat. It is the characteristic adipose tissue that many living things present under the skin. This lipid generates an insulating and protective layer of the cold. It is also present in the leaves of the plants preventing them from drying out easily.
- Lipids with structural function . They are phospholipids (phosphorous containing molecules) and form the membrane of the cells .
- Lipids with hormonal function . These are also called “ steroids .” Example:human sex hormones .
- Lipids with vitamin function . These lipids provide substances for the correct growth of living beings. Some of these are vitamin A, D and K.
See also: Lipid Examples
Proteins . They are biomolecules that fulfill various functions in the body. They are made up of carbon , oxygen , hydrogen and nitrogen molecules.
These proteins have amino acids . There are 20 different types of amino acids. The combination of these amino acids will result in different proteins. However (and given the multiplicity of combinations) they can be classified into 5 large groups:
- Structural proteins . They are part of the body of all living beings. An example of this group of proteins is keratin.
- Hormonal proteins . They regulate some functions of the organism. An example of this group is insulin, which has the function of controlling the entry of glucose into the cell.
- Defense proteins . They function as an organism defense. In other words, they are responsible for attacking and defending the body against microorganisms, bacteria or viruses. These are called antibodies . For example: white blood cells.
- Transport proteins . As the name implies, they are responsible for transporting substances or molecules through the blood. For example: hemoglobin.
- Protein of enzymatic action . Accelerate the assimilation of nutrients by the different organs of the body. An example of this is the amylase that breaks down glucose to allow its better assimilation by the body.
See also: Protein Examples
Nucleic acids . They are acids that must, as the main function, control the functions of the cell. But the main function is to transmit the genetic material from generation to generation. These acids are made up ofcarbon,hydrogen,oxygen,nitrogenandphosphorusmolecules. These are divided into units which are callednucleotides.
There are two types of nucleic acids:
- DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid
- RNA: ribonucleic acid
Examples of biomolecules
- Lactose or milk sugar
- Maltose or malt sugar
- Sucrose or cane and beet sugar
- Hyaluronic acid
- Amylopectin: branched starch
- Dermatan Sulfate
- Queratan Sulfate
- Avocado (Unsaturated Fats)
- Peanut (Unsaturated Fats)
- Pork (Saturated Fats)
- Ham (Saturated Fats)
- Milk (Saturated Fats)
- Nuts (Unsaturated Fats)
- Olive (Unsaturated Fats)
- Fish (polyunsaturated fats)
- Cheeses (Saturated Fats)
- Canola Seed (Unsaturated Fats)
- Bacon (Saturated Fats)
- Collagen (fibrous connective tissue)
- Glycoproteins (part of cell membranes)
- Elastin (Elastic connective tissue)
- Keratin or keratin (epidermis)
- Histones (chromosomes)
- Growth hormone
- Hormone Insulin
- Hormones troops
- Thrombin and fibrinogen
Enzymatic action proteins
- Gliadina, from the wheat grain
- Lactoalbumin, from milk
- Ovoalbumin Reserve, from egg white
- DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
- Messenger RNA (ribonucleic acid)
- Ribosomal RNA
- Artificial nucleic RNA
- Transfer RNA
- ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
- ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
- AMP (adenosine monophosphate)
- GTP (guanosine triphosphate)