We will briefly explain the basic principles of the regulation of the fight against doping, established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (AMA) which is located in Montreal, Canada. This is a private and independent organization from the rest of national and international federations, although it exercises control over all of these with respect to anti-doping regulations and the list of prohibited substances and methods.
To start, the first thing we must understand is what is doping? Precisely WADA defines it in the World Anti-Doping Code (Code), indicating that it is the occurrence or concurrence of one or more violations of the anti-doping rules found in article 2 of the Code. These are:
2.1. Entry or presence of a prohibited substance in the blood or urine sample of an athlete.
2.2. Use or attempted use by an athlete of a prohibited substance or a prohibited method.
2.3. Evasion, rejection or failure of the sampling procedure.
2.4. Failure to indicate the place where the athlete was for the taking of the sample.
2.5 Manipulation or attempted manipulation of any object or moment of the doping control procedure.
2.6. Possession of a prohibited substance or a prohibited method.
2.7. Traffic or attempted traffic of any prohibited substance or prohibited method.
2.8. Administer or attempt to administer to any athlete in or out of competition, any prohibited substance or prohibited method.
2.9. Intentional complicity in relation to an anti-doping rule violation or attempted anti-doping rule violation.
2.10. Forbidden association between an athlete and an athlete support person who is serving a period of suspension or has been convicted criminally, disciplinarily or professionally for incurring violations of anti-doping regulations.
That is, all of the above means doping. For all the behaviors described above, the World Anti-Doping Agency or the Disciplinary Commissions of the different national or international federations can sanction an athlete, doctor, kinesiologist, technical director, physical trainer and anyone around the sport for a violation of anti-doping regulations .
Now, since we know what doping is, we will explain then, what is prohibited? In this regard, the World Anti-Doping Agency annually updates and publishes the Prohibited List, which always begins to take effect on January 1 of each year. This list classifies the prohibited into two main branches, the prohibited substances and the prohibited methods.
The Prohibited List is defined by the same Code stating that “identifies those prohibited substances and prohibited methods at all times (both in competition and out of competition) due to their potential for performance improvement in future Competitions or due to their potential masking effect , and those Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods that are only prohibited in competition. ”
Prohibited Substances are also divided into two main branches: Specific Substances and Non-Specific Substances. In this way, WADA clarifies that all Prohibited Substances are considered as Specific Substances with some exceptions. Similarly, Prohibited Methods will be understood as non-specific substances. To make the understanding between this distinction easier, we elaborate the following table:
|NON-SPECIFIC SUBSTANCES||EXAMPLE||SPECIFIC SUBSTANCES||EXAMPLE|
|Anabolic Agents (S1)||Boldenone; Clenbuterol Increase muscle mass||Beta-2 Agonists (S3)||Salbutamol; Phenoterol They prepare the muscles for stressful situations, more air in the lungs|
|Peptide hormones, growth factors, related substances and mimetics (S2)||EPO (Erythropoietin) Helps increase the production of red blood cells.
Human Growth Hormone Helps hormonal and muscle growth.
|Some hormonal modulators (S4)||Andostra; Letrozole Control the hormonal production of the athlete|
|Metabolic Modulators (S4.5) and Myostatin Inhibitors (S4.4)||Meldonium Control the metabolism||Diuretics and masking agents (S5)||Furosemide, Chlorothiazide. They function as a diuretic helping to expel other prohibited substances.|
|Some non-specific stimulants (S6.a)||Cocaine; Methamphetamine It generates greater concentration and physical deployment.||Specific stimulants (S6.b)||Octopamine, Catina. Relaxation nervous system, greater physical deployment.|
|Blood Handling (M1)||Administration or reintroduction of any amount of own, homologous or third-party blood to the athlete’s circulatory system.||Narcotics (S7)||Morphine, Methadone. They cause pain relief as an analgesic on some occasions.|
|Physical or Chemical Manipulation (M2)||Handling in order to alter the integrity and validity of samples taken from athletes. Substitution and / or adulteration of urine.||Canabinoids (S8)||Natural and synthetic. Marijuana, Hashish. It generates bronchodilation and increased blood flow in the extremities.|
|Genetic Doping (M3)||Use of normal or genetically modified cells in the body of an athlete.||Glucocorticoids (S9)||Methylprednisolone, Dexamethasone. Airway relaxants and anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.|
As you could see, we mentioned and made a brief summary of each of the substances and methods prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. But what is this distinction for?
Mainly, this distinction was made by the World Anti-Doping Agency to define the maximum suspension time for an athlete or person who fails to comply with the provisions of the code, for a specific or non-specific substance.
In this regard, the sanction for doping for non-specific substances is suspended for a maximum of 4 years. On the other hand, the sanction for doping for specific substances is a maximum of 2 years of suspension. As you can see, the AMA determines a stronger penalty for doping with substances that not only increase and improve sports performance in a considerable way, but also, are the substances that harm the health of an athlete or person. In contrast, for those specific substances, the sanction is much lower because they are substances that are less harmful to the body and do not lead to a significantly higher yield, however, they also prohibit them.
The above are the two main points on the subject of the AMA Anti-Doping Regulation. Understanding what is doping and what substances and methods are prohibited is the first step to approach this Regulation. Especially it is the most important thing that athletes and the people who work around this issue should understand.
There are many other issues regarding the Anti-Doping Regulation but for extension issues, we will touch them on our following blogs, such as Therapeutic Use Authorizations, the elimination or reduction of the sanctions imposed on athletes and the sampling process, among others.