.Aesthetics is a science that studies the beautiful in reality, the aesthetic attitude to reality, to nature and society. “Aesthetics in the broad sense of the word is a science that studies the aesthetic form of the spiritual mastery of reality, which takes place in everyday life and in any kind of activity, but mainly in art.”
In the narrow sense, aesthetics is understood as the science of the most general laws of the development of art. Moreover, art is considered as the highest form of aesthetic assimilation of reality. As a science of the most general laws of the development of art, aesthetics occupies an intermediate position between philosophy and the sciences of individual art forms.
Aesthetics is based on the dialectical-materialistic philosophy and represents a general theoretical basis for special branches of art history. Based on this, we can proceed to the dismemberment of aesthetics in its narrow sense. She turned to philosophy on the side that embodies general aesthetic principles and studies the most general laws of artistic development, which appear each time in various forms characteristic of particular types of art.
Special aesthetics studies the specific forms of manifestation of general artistic laws in certain types of art and their particular laws. They distinguish between the aesthetics of literature (or the theory of literature), the aesthetics of fine art, the musical aesthetics, the aesthetics of cinema, etc. This provision allows us to talk about the aesthetics of furniture, i.e., the specific forms of manifestation of general artistic laws in such a significant element of direct service to a person and groups of people, like furniture with which a person interacts in his home, at work, on vacation, etc.
The significance of objects directly surrounding a person can be illustrated in fig. 56 and the following quote: “The historically developed social need for introducing an artistic principle into all groups of objects that people have to surround themselves with, leads to the fact that art and design creates a closed human utilitarian and aesthetic environment around him and for this he surrounds him with a system of the following one after another of concentric spheres. It begins with decorating the human body itself, then constructs an artistically significant shell (clothing) for his body and combines various decorations with it, then makes aesthetically valuable all the things that a person operates in his daily life, starting from cult, household and industrial utensils ( tools, tools appliances) and ending with the furnishings of the premises where he lives, works and communicates with his own kind, it gives artistic meaning to architectural structures in which and between which his whole life flows (these include buildings, and various kinds of special objects, large and small ones – from a bridge and a television mast to a kiosk and an urn), it extends its aesthetic activity to the construction of vehicles for ground and underground, water and air, which finally invades nature itself, transforming it aesthetically (so called aemaya “green architecture).
Thus, nowadays, all spheres of the national economy are subject to aesthetics: production, circulation, education, everyday life.Before considering specific aesthetic requirements for modern furniture, we should briefly dwell on the basic aesthetic concepts.General logical concepts that reveal the content of aesthetics as a science, generalizing the aesthetic peculiarity of the surrounding reality, are called the category of aesthetics. Categories such as aesthetic perception, aesthetic taste, experience, ideal, etc., belong to the field of aesthetic consciousness.
The most common are the following categories: beauty, beautiful, sublime, base, ugly, drama, aesthetic measure. There is a group of aesthetic categories that generalizes the laws of artistic creation, therefore it is applicable only to the field of art. These include: an artistic image, an artistic method, artistic skill, etc.
A person’s special ability to feel the beauty of objects surrounding him (the beauty of their form, color, musical sound, etc.), to distinguish between beautiful and ugly, tragic and comic, elevated and low-lying features in the behavior of people and heroes of works of art and at the same time experience a sense of pleasure , pleasure or displeasure, is called aesthetic perception, developing on the basis of sensory perception – a person’s ability when various objects affect the organs of vision and hearing through excitement rvnoy system, transmission of nerve excitation in the brain reflect (feel) the spatial shape of objects, color and sound, and so on. d.
Aesthetic perception is always accompanied by a special experience – an aesthetic feeling. Therefore, when they talk about the aesthetic properties of things, they mean the presence of a person endowed with such a feeling. A certain connection arises between a beautiful thing and a person who perceives beauty – an esthetic attitude of a person to reality. For the appearance of an aesthetic feeling, a special visual signal is needed. A regular connection is noted between the visually perceived form, usefulness, value, and sensory reaction of a person having a positive or negative emotional tone. In practical activity, a person has learned to open up stable links between the visually perceived structure and the utilitarian value of a thing.
Aesthetic taste allows a person to understand and evaluate the aesthetic features of objects and phenomena of nature, social life. He expresses an assessment of reality, the diversity of aesthetic values from the positions developed by a person in the process of public practice of ideas about the beautiful, ugly, comic, tragic, etc. direct assessments.
One of the most important categories of aesthetics is the category of beauty, which along with the category of beauty serves to determine and evaluate the aesthetic properties of objects and phenomena of reality: perfection, harmony, expressiveness, completeness.
Beauty, as a certain combination of properties of objects and phenomena of reality, of a person, products of material and spiritual production, works of art, is characterized by a variety of signs: proportionality and proportionality, harmony of parts and the play of colors, brightness and novelty, appropriateness and integrity of the form, the form corresponds to the content and t Beauty is a social property of things, therefore the same features are characteristic for it as for other social properties: benefits, convenience, expediency and . D. Beauty inherent specificity. It manifests itself and exists in social processes, is objectively present in things regardless of the will and desire of individual individuals who perceive it with a varying degree of subjectivity, measured by social measures (norms, ideals), evolving in historically specific forms of human activity. The value of beauty is relative: the emergence of new, more advanced products leads to a public reappraisal of aesthetic criteria.
One of the most important and broad categories of aesthetics is associated with the category of beauty – namely, the category of the beautiful, which serves to identify and positively evaluate the most perfect phenomena in reality, social life, in people’s activities, in art. Marxist-Leninist aesthetics considers the beautiful in nature as the result of harmony and completeness in the ratio of the parts of the material world, the manifestation of its properties and signs.
The concept of aesthetic value speaks of the ability of objects and phenomena of nature or products of human labor due to the presence of certain properties to satisfy aesthetic needs of a person, to cause an aesthetic experience in him. The range of aesthetic values is extremely wide. This is, first of all, the man himself, as well as all the objects of his creative work, created according to the laws of beauty. One of the most significant categories of aesthetic values is made up of works of art: architectural monuments, sculptures, paintings, fiction, etc. Although the idea of the aesthetic value of various objects changes during the course of historical development and in a class society is of a class nature, it an objective, universal content is always concluded.
The value of artistic and aesthetic values is especially great in a socialist society, which opens up limitless possibilities for their creation and use in the interests of workers. The artistic beginning even more spiritualizes the work of Soviet people, decorates their life and ennobles man.
As in any other science, various aspects are distinguished in aesthetics depending on the specific form of connection with practice. It has a research-theoretical and practical, applied side. Below are briefly considered the concepts that are closest to the characteristic of the artistic form of the subject.
Art form (Latin forma – exterior) – the structure of an artwork created using the expressive means of this art to express artistic content. The form of the work must have internal unity. Harmoniousness, proportionality of its elements are necessary conditions for completeness, perfection, beauty of a work of art.
“Each functioning material form serves for man as an expression of the social value of a thing. In his presentation to useful, perfect, expedient things, perfect and expedient forms correspond. A proportional, large-scale form, for example, is characteristic of good things, and disproportionate, non-scaled, is bad. So there is an idea of a complex of signs and traits of forms that reflect the value of a thing. The form of a thing, having become a carrier of information about the value of a product, acquires a certain independence. It causes a person to have a conscious or unconscious emotional reaction in which a direct sensory evaluation of the form is expressed. ”
Aesthetic attitude of a person to an object, a sensual assessment of its aesthetic properties is formed on the basis of the utilitarian.
The most important element in the form of any work of art is its composition (Latin compositio — location, composition, connection) —that is, its construction, the location of its main elements and parts in a specific system and sequence. Each type of art has its own special, compositional techniques. The means of streamlining the composition are proportions (lat. Propotio – ratio, from portio – part, share) – proportionality, a certain ratio of the parts of objects and phenomena to each other, one of the manifestations of harmony.
Harmony (Greek harmony – connection, harmony) – proportionality, coordination of the parties of objects and phenomena: a specific unity in diversity. In art, the organic relationship of all components of a work of art.
The concept of harmony was truly scientifically substantiated only in the Marxist-Leninist aesthetics, which proceeds from the objective basis of harmony, and believes that harmony is one of the essential signs of beauty, and that the regular processes of reality itself serve as its source in art.
Clarity, clarity and harmony of the work of art is facilitated by rhythm (Greek rhythmos – uniformity, harmony) – the sequential alternation of commensurate elements in works of art, reflected in the art of the rhythmic processes of the objective world.
The most important elements of the artistic form of a work of art include color (Latin color – paint, color) – a harmonious combination of colors, contributing to the disclosure of the content, meaning of the work, the identification of its essence.
The aesthetic quality of a work of art depends to a large extent on expressiveness, i.e., the artist’s ability, through a variety of artistic techniques, to figuratively convey human emotions, moods, passions, his ability to find and use in a figurative characteristic such details that most fully reveal the essence of the depicted phenomenon or character, determine the expressiveness of the work of art as a whole or its individual parts and images. Expressiveness is specifically manifested in various forms of art.One of the most effective artistic techniques is contrast (French contrasfe – a sharp difference, the opposite) – a technique consisting in a sharp contrast between the qualities (for example, volumes, colors) and the characters depicted in works of art objects and phenomena, which helps to more clearly shade their features .
A prerequisite for creating a genuine work of art is the unity of content and form. The essence of this law is that the form of a work of art is organically connected with the content and is determined by it; the latter, in turn, appears only in a certain form.