Apricot. (Prunus Armeniaca, “Armenian plum” in Latin, syn. Armeniaca vulgaris El Lam.) It is a species of Prunus, classified with plum in subgenus Prunus. The native range is somewhat uncertain due to its extensive prehistoric cultivation, but most likely in northern and western China and central Asia , possibly also Korea and Japan .
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- 1 Taxonomy
- 1 Scientific name
- 1.1 Authors
- 1.2 New name
- 2 Combinations for this basonym
- 3 Synonymy
- 4 Common name
- 1 Scientific name
- 2 Description
- 3 History
- 4 Crop
- 5 Medicinal and non-food applications
- 6 References
- 7 Sources
- Prunus armeniaca L.   
- Linnaeus, Carl von
- Published in: Species Plantarum 1: 474. 1753. (1 May 1753 ) 
- Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. 
Combinations for this basonym
- Armeniaca armeniaca (L.) Huth 
- Armeniaca vulgaris Lam.   
Abercoque, apricot tree, apricot tree, opener, apricot, apricot, apricot apricot, Castilian apricot, sweet-skinned apricot, gardener apricot, sweet-stone apricot, Patriarch’s apricot, Nancy’s apricot, Toledo’s apricot, Apricot Toro , white eye apricot, royal apricot, apricot tree, Seville apricot, early apricot, apricot tree, white apricot tree, apricot apricot tree, heretic apricot tree, alberchigal, alberchiguero, albercho, albercoqué, albercoquero, alberge, albergero, albericoquero, alberillo, albérchigo alvar , coke, apricot, apricot, mayero, moniquis, pavia, paviar, pavío / a, piescal, piesco / a, piescu, prisco, sanjuanero.
It is a small tree , 8-12 m high, with a trunk up to a diameter of 40 centimeters and a dense canopy, which separates. leaves are ovate, 5-9 cm long and 4-8 cm wide, with a rounded base, a pointed tip and a finally serrated margin. flowers are 2-4.5 centimeters in diameter, with five white to pinkish petals; They occur singly or in pairs in early spring before leaves.
The drupe fruit is similar to a small peach, diameter of 1.5-2.5 centimeters (larger in some modern cultivars), from yellow to orange , often tinged red on the side most exposed to the sun ; its surface is generally pubescent. The single seed is enclosed in a hard stony shell, often called a “stone”, smooth except for three ridges that run down one side.
The apricot was first cultivated in China in about 3000 BC. In Armenia it was known from ancient times, being brought along the Silk Road; it has been cultivated there so it wishes it is often thought to be native there.
Its introduction to Greece is attributed to Alexander the Great, and the Roman general Lucullus (106-57 BCE) also exported some trees, cherry , white-heart cherry, and apricot from Armenia to Europe . Subsequent sources were often very confusing about the origin of the species.
Loudon ( 1838 ) believed he had a wide native range including Armenia , the Caucasus , the Himalayas , China, and Japan . Almost all sources presume that because it is named Armenian, the tree must be native to or have originated in Armenia as the Romans knew it. For example, De Poerderlé states: “Tires are name de l’Arménie del arbre de Cet, province d’Asie, originating in Europe from il d’où il porté del fut del il d’où est … . ” (“This tree takes its name from Armenia, province of Asia, where it is native, and where it was brought to Europe …”) There is no scientific evidence to support such a vision.
Today cultivars have spread to all parts of the globe with the climates that support it. Apricots have been cultivated in Persia since antiquity, and drying was an important commodity in the Persian trade routes. Apricots are still an important fruit in modern-day Iran where they are known under the common name Zard-ālū (Persian زردالو).
Apricots are also grown in Egypt and are among the well-known common fruits. The season in which the apricot is present on the market in Egypt is very short. There is even an Egyptian proverb that says “Fel meshmesh” (English “on apricot”) that is used to refer to something that will not happen because the apricot has appeared disappears from the market in Egypt so shortly after it.
The Egyptians dry the apricot and sweeten it generally then use it to make a drink called “THE LOVE DEEN”. More recently, English Settlers brought the apricot to English Colonies in the new world. Most of the modern American production of apricots comes from the seedlings brought to the west coast by Spanish missionaries.
Almost all the USA . production is in California , with some in Washington and Utah. Many apricots are also grown in Australia , particularly South Australia where they are commonly grown in the region known as Riverland and in a small town called Mypolonga in the Lower Murray state region. .
In states other than South Australia apricots are still produced, particularly in Tasmania and western Victoria and southwestern New South Wales, only less common than in South Australia .
Although often thought of as a “subtropical” fruit, the apricot is native to the continental climate region with cold winters. The tree is slightly cold-sturdier than peach, tolerating cold from winter temperatures as low as −30 ° C or lower if healthy. The limiting factor in apricot culture is spring frosts: They tend to flower very early, around the time of the vernal equinox even in northern locations like the Great Lakes region, meaning spring frost often kills flowers.
Trees need some winter cold (albeit minimal) to carry and grow properly and to do well in. Mediterranean climate locations since spring frosts are less severe but there is some cool winter weather to allow for proper dormancy.
The dry climate of these areas is the best for good fruit production. Hybridization with closely related Prunus sibirica (Siberian Apricot; robust at −50 ° C but with less tasty fruit) offers the options for breeding plants more cold tolerant. Apricot cultivars are most often grafted on plum or peach rhizomes.
A cut from an existing apricot plant provides the characteristics of the fruit such as flavor, size, etc., but the rhizome provides the characteristics of the plant’s growth. Apricots and plums can hybridize with each other and produce fruit which are variously called pluots, plumcots, or apriums. Apricots are produced commercially in the United States , especially California and Washington .
Apricots have a chilling requirement of 300 to 900 chilling units. They are robust in USDA zones 5 through 8. Some of the most popular apricot cultivars include “Blenheim”, “Wenatchee Moorpark”, “Tilton”, and “perfection”. There is an old adage that an apricot tree will not grow far from the mother tree. The implication is that apricots are particular about the soil conditions in which they are grown.
They prefer well-drained soil with a pH of 6.0 to 7.0. If fertilizer is needed, as indicated by yellow-green leaves, then 1/4 pound of 10-10-10 fertilizer should be applied in the second year. Granular fertilizer should be dispersed under the branches of the tree . An additional 1/4 pound must be requested each year of the tree’s age in early spring, before growth begins.
Apricots are self-compatible and do not require pollinizer trees, except for “Moongold” and “Sungold” cultivars, which can be pollinated. Apricots are susceptible to numerous bacterial diseases including bacterial canker and blight, bacterial spot and crown gall.
They are susceptible to an even longer list of fungal diseases including brown rot, altrnaria and fruit rot, and powdery mildew. Other problems for apricots are nematodes and viral diseases, including graft-transmissible problems.
Medicinal and non-food applications
Cyanogenic glycosides (found in most stone fruit seeds, bark, and leaves) are found in high concentration in apricot kernels. Laetrile, purported alternative treatment for cancer, is extracted from apricot kernels.
Since the year 502, apricot kernels were used to treat tumors, and in the 17th century apricot kernel oil was used in England against tumors and ulcers. However, in the 1980 National Cancer Institute in the USA . Laetrile sued to be an ineffective cancer treatment.
In Europe , apricots long were considered aphrodisiac, and were used in this context in William Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream, and as an inducer of childbirth, as depicted in John Webster’s The Duchess of Malfi.
Due to their high fiber to volume ratio, dried apricots are sometimes used to relieve constipation or to induce diarrhea. The effects can be felt after eating as little as three.