Appendicitis

Appendicitis. It is an inflammation of the appendix, a small sac that is attached to the beginning of the large intestine.

Summary

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  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Causes
  • 3 Symptoms
  • 4 Treatment
  • 5 Tests and reviews
  • 6 Diagnosis
  • 7 When to contact a medical professional
  • 8 Complications
    • 1 Peritonitis
      • 1.1 Ailments associated with peritonitis
      • 1.2 Diagnosis of peritonitis
    • 9 Sources

Introduction

The surgical operation is called an appendectomy, it consists of the early removal of the appendix, the first appendectomies were performed in the late 19th century , but the appendix was discovered in the 16th century due to deaths caused by appendicitis.

The involvement of appendicitis in terms of age range is between twenty and thirty years, the rate of involvement is around thirteen or fourteen percent in men and over twenty-two percent in women, the mortality rate is less than one percent, so we can clarify that it really is not a dangerous disease in excess but not treating it could be very harmful.

Causes

Appendix

Appendicitis is one of the most common causes of abdominal surgery. It usually occurs when the appendix is ​​blocked by feces, a foreign body, or, rarely, by a tumor.

There are three basic causes that cause a box of appendicitis:

  • Infection
  • Inflammation
  • Twist of the appendix

Symptoms

Symptoms of appendicitis vary, and it can be difficult to diagnose in young children, the elderly, and women of childbearing age.

Classically, the first symptom is pain around the navel (see: abdominal pain). This pain may initially be vague, but it becomes increasingly sharp and severe. Loss of appetite , nausea , vomiting, and low fever may occur .

As the inflammation in the appendix increases, the pain tends to move to the lower right part of the abdomen and is concentrated directly on the appendix at a place called the McBurney point.

If a ruptured appendix occurs, the pain may decrease briefly and you may feel better; however, once the lining of the abdominal cavity becomes infected and inflamed (a condition called peritonitis ), the pain gets worse and you become sicker.

Abdominal pain can be made worse by walking or coughing, and you may prefer to stay still because sudden movements cause pain.

Late symptoms include:

  • Shaking chills
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Lack of appetite
  • Sickness
  • Tremors
  • Vomiting

Treatment

Appendicitis is treated by removing the inflamed appendix through an appendectomy. Surgeons can either make a traditional incision in the abdomen or use a small instrument called a laparoscope that allows you to make a much smaller hole in the abdomen. Appendectomy usually requires two to three days of hospitalization.

Before and after surgery, intravenous (VI) fluids and antibiotics help prevent possible complications and reduce the risk of the wound becoming infected after surgery. If an infected appendix ruptures, it will also need to be removed surgically, but the intervention may require a longer hospital stay so that antibiotics can kill all bacteria that have spread throughout the patient’s body.

Tests and exams

If you have appendicitis, the pain increases when the doctor suddenly releases the pressure after gently pressing on the lower right area of ​​the belly. If you have peritonitis, touching the belly area can cause muscle spasm.

A rectal examination may reveal tenderness on the right side of the rectum.

Doctors can usually diagnose appendicitis from your description of symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory tests alone. In some cases, additional tests may be needed, such as:

  • CT scan of the abdomen
  • Abdominal ultrasound
  • Diagnostic laparoscopy

Diagnosis

Cecal appendix

Because appendicitis symptoms may be similar to those of other medical conditions, diagnosing appendicitis is often a challenge for doctors.

To confirm or rule out appendicitis, the pediatrician will scan the child’s abdomen for signs of pain or tender areas, and will also order blood and urine tests, chest and abdominal x-rays, and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdominal area.

If your pediatrician suspects that your child has appendicitis, he or she may ask you to stop giving him or her food and drinks to prepare him or her for surgery.

When to contact a medical professional

Call your health care provider if you develop abdominal pain in the lower right portion of your belly or any other symptoms of appendicitis.

Also call the doctor if:

  • Your pain is severe, sudden, and severe
  • You have a fever along with pain
  • You are vomiting blood or have bloody diarrhea
  • Your abdomen is stiff, hard, and tender to the touch
  • Unable to defecate, especially if you are also vomiting
  • You have chest, neck, or shoulder pain
  • You have vertigo or dizziness
  • You have nausea and lack of appetite
  • You are losing weight unintentionally
  • You have yellow eyes or skin
  • You have abdominal distension for more than 2 days
  • You have diarrhea for more than 5 days or your child has had diarrhea for 2 days or has been vomiting for 12 hours (call immediately if a baby younger than 3 months has diarrhea or vomiting)
  • You have had abdominal discomfort for more than 1 week
  • Burning while urinating or urinating more often than normal
  • You are in pain and may be pregnant
  • Your pain gets worse when you take antacids or eat something

Complications

Peritonitis

The peritonitis is a disease derived from appendicitis, consists of a more or less severe inflammation in the area known as the peritoneum, located in the abdomen is a mucous layer covering some parts located in the center of the body.

The symptoms are similar to those of appendicitis, since this disease can be caused either by poor treatment of appendicitis or directly by a blow to the peritoneal area , if this disease is not treated it can cause organic failure that can lead to even in a generally premature death.

Ailments associated with peritonitis

Some of the ailments linked to peritonitis are tachycardia, that is, an increase in heart rate, sepsis, which is a serious infection and various disorders that can end in shocks and cardiac arrests.

Diagnosis of peritonitis

For the correct diagnosis of peritonitis, ultrasounds of the affected area are required, and a rectal and / or vaginal examination to determine the internal damage, generally the cure for this disease lies in a simple operation, all of which depends on the state of the people. usually.

Regarding the post-operative, at first you have to be calm, because due to anesthesia one is very tired, to all this is added the fever that lasts a few days, the average stay in the hospital after the operation is For about three or four days, the nurses will give you pain relievers and / or pain relievers, but you will gradually recover.

 

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