Amputation . It is the cut and separation of a limb from the body by surgery or it can also be caused by trauma due to an accident, or intensionally by some punishment. The surgical case is performed to control pain or a process caused by a disease in the affected limb, such as a malignant tumor or gangrene , in the latter case it happens a lot in diabetic patients.


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  • 1 Types of amputation
  • 2 Causes to amputate
  • 3 First aid of a traumatic amputation
  • 4 Stem cell research
  • 5 References
  • 6 Source

Types of amputation

There are the following types of amputation:

  • Limb amputation
    • Leg
    • Arm
  • Teeth
  • The avulsion tooth. It may be due to a pathological process, or for the purpose of Orthodontics , with a view to improving aesthetics.
  • Hemicorporectomy, or amputation of the waist. It is the most radical type of amputation.
  • Genital modificationand genital mutilation may include tissue cutting , when circumcision is performed , or when sex change is desired .

Causes to amputate

  • Amputation in the uterus
  • Traumatic amputation. This type is very common in accidents, the limb may have been partially or totally sectioned. But in some cases, if recovery is achieved and the patient arrives at the hospital quickly, he can undergo surgery and sometimes recover.
  • Serious limb injuries,in which the limb cannot be saved, or where attempts to save the limb have not been successful and the life of the patient may be in danger.
  • Advanced cancer
  • Deformities of the fingers or limbs
  • Gangrene
  • Bone infection, such as osteomyelitis
  • Mastectomy. It is the amputation of the breast or breast, due to breast cancer .
  • Critical circulatory problems.
  • Carcinogenic tumors in bones, such as: osteosarcomaor osteochondroma .

Traumatic amputation first aid

When there is a type of trauma amputation, the following measures should be followed in order to help the patient:

  • Examine the person’s Airways(open them, if necessary); check respiration and circulation , in addition to being necessary, start Artificial Respiration , CPR, or bleeding control .
  • Try to calm and reassure the person. Amputations are painful and extremely frightening.
  • Control bleeding by applying direct pressure to the wound. Elevate the injured area. If the bleeding continues, check the source of the bleeding again and reapply direct pressure, with the help of someone who is not fatigued. If the person is experiencing life-threatening bleeding, it will be easier to use a tourniquet or tight bandage than direct pressure on the wound. However, wearing a tight bandage too long can do more harm than good.
  • Keep the severed body part and make sure it stays with the patient.
  • Remove dirty material that may contaminate the wound if possible and rinse the body part very gently if the cut end is dirty.
  • Wrap the severed part in a clean, damp piece of cloth, place it in a sealed plastic bag, and immerse the bag in ice water.
  • Do not put the affected part directly in water without using a plastic bag.
  • Do not directly place the severed part on ice. Do not use dry ice, as this causes frostbite and injury to the affected part.
  • If cold water is not available, keep the part away from heat as much as possible; Keep it for delivery to the medicalteam or take to the hospital . Cooling the severed part helps keep it viable for about 18 hours; otherwise, it will only be kept for about 4 or 6 hours.
  • Keep the patient warm.
  • Take steps to prevent shock. Lay the person flat, raise their feet about 12 inches (30 cm), and cover them with a coat or blanket. DO NOT place the person in this position if a head, neck, back or leg injury is suspected or if the position is uncomfortable.
  • After the bleeding is controlled, examine the person for other signs of injury that require urgent treatment. Treat fractures, extra cuts, or other injuries appropriately.
  • Stay with the person until medical help arrives.

Stem cell research

In Cuba, research has been carried out with stem cells and treated some 3,700 patients, with encouraging results. The effects are similar to those obtained in developed countries by avoiding major amputations in most patients, according to Dr. Porfirio Hernández , coordinator of the National Group of Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Public Health . [one]

These treatments are in the phase of clinical trials with strict selection criteria, and services are provided in 10 of the 15 provinces. Six out of 10 patients treated with the procedure had severe ischemia of the lower limbs, followed by cell therapy regenerative. The best results have been obtained in patients with chronic lymphedema of the lower limbs and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, in whom the treatment based on the stem cell graft avoided the need for a lung transplant .

With the ability to divide unlimitedly, stem cells can regenerate tissues damaged by disease, trauma, or aging, and are derived primarily from the Bone Marrow , Peripheral Blood , Cornea , Brain , Lung, and Endometrium .


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