Fauna or animals in this world there are so many and varied types. The types of various fauna can also vary from one region to another. Generally, the state of fauna in each region depends on the condition of the area. The most influential thing is about the possibilities that the area can provide for food.
One of the things that greatly affects the distribution of fauna in the world is climate. Climate conditions, directly or indirectly, greatly affect the communities of living things, especially the condition of plants. Meanwhile, the condition of these plants then influences the existence of certain types of fauna.
because of the different climatic effects in each region, there are also different fauna, based on local conditions. Some of these fauna are mountainous fauna, lowland fauna, savannah fauna, tropical forest fauna, and so on.
a. Distribution of Fauna in the Meadow Area
Grassland is an area with a lot of green grass, which is usually relatively fertile. In such areas, there tend to be more types of animal species, compared to other terrestrial habitats.
Typically, fauna communities in pasture areas are large body-eating grass animals. Examples of grassland fauna and their regions, for example, zebras in Africa , kangaroos in Australia , and bison in America . These large animals are the primary consumers of pastures.
Then, usually in pasture areas there will also be predators that prey on these large grass-eating animals. Examples of predators in the meadow, such as lions and wild dogs who like to prey on large herbivores. In addition, there are also snakes that prey on small herbivores.
In addition to the herbivore vertebrate group, there are also many insects in the meadow. Insect groups such as grasshoppers and dragonflies are also direct consumers of existing grass.
b. Distribution of Fauna in the Desert
Deserts are fairly arid regions with a very minimal amount of plants and water. Generally, desert animals are able to adapt to environments that have hot and arid conditions like this. Generally, large mammals are rarely able to survive in desert areas.
Most large animals will find it very difficult to adapt to high temperatures and with very little water. However, there is one among the types of large animals that are able to survive well in hot areas like this desert region, namely camels.
Besides camels, other types of animals that are widely found in desert areas are snakes, rodents, and lizards. Meanwhile, other species that are able to survive in this area are mostly small animals. Small animals in desert areas, generally living in holes. Then, these animals will come out looking for prey in the morning or at night.
c. Distribution of Fauna in the Sea and Arctic
The distribution of fauna in the sea can be categorized into 5 regions, namely the litoral zone, the neritic zone, the coastal zone, the Pacific and Atlantic Samutra and the Arctic Region. The following statement:
- The litoral zoneis a part of the ocean basin that lies between tides and rising tides. Seawater organisms that can live in this area are benthic.
- Neritic zoneis an area that can still be penetrated by sunlight to the bottom. In the neritic zone, marine fauna that can live are plankton, nekton, and coral animals.
- Zone along the coast of the islands. In this zone, many types of fish can survive, such as tuna, mackerel, snapper, bloating, flying, and anchovies. In addition, there are also types of sea turtles and octopuses.
- In the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic (deep sea), in deep ocean zones such as those in the Pacific Ocean and Altantik, many species of life are plankton species, and there are also sharks and whales.
- In the Arctic region, in the Arctic region, there are fauna which are generally thick haired to adapt to cold temperatures. Examples of arctic fauna include polar bears, reindeer, seals and penguins.
d. Distribution of Fauna in the Tundra Region
The sequence of biomes from the equator region to the poles is the same as the sequence of biomes from the land in the equator region to the vertical direction. Towards the vertical or rising, then generally the temperature and rainfall are getting higher and this also determines the community.
The sequence of biomes from a high mountain in the tropics includes: deciduous forest, coniferous forest, tundra, and mosses. In the tundra, there are only a few species of living things that remain. In fact, there are fewer than the number of species that live in the desert.
The more towards the poles of the tundra, there will be ice. In areas like this, animals that are able to survive are animals that are resistant to cold temperatures, such as walruses, seals, and thick furry penguins.
In addition, there are other mammals that can live in tundra areas, such as polar bears, polar rabbits, and lemurs.
As for the types of insects, there are very many, especially flies whose eggs are cold-resistant and the eggs hatch in the summer.
Some animals that live in the region or tundra biome, some live permanently and some only come to the area in the summer alone. Usually animals that only come during the summer are those that aim to lay eggs.
Animals that live in this area, both birds and mammals, generally have thick feathers or hair. This thick fur plays an important role in protecting the animal’s body from low temperatures. In addition, for protection against low temperatures, these animals also experience discoloration, which is white in winter.
White is a protective color on the snow as well as to reduce heat loss by solar radiation. Some large herbivorous animals, which can live in tundra areas such as muskox and reindeer.
e. Fauna in the Wet Forest Region
Animals or fauna in tropical wet forest areas that are often found such as wild pigs, monkeys, birds, jungle cats, squirrels, and others. If we enter the dark tropical forest during the day, then we will not see many animals. So, it’s as if the forest is not inhabited by animals.
This condition is caused by the darkness of the wet forest floor. Animals that live in wet forest areas during the day many live in the hood area. Thus, these animals are not visible from below.
In addition, there are many animals in the forest who do a lot of activities at night. Examples of carnivores in the Asia-Africa region are leopards, while in America they are Jaguar.
f. Distribution of Fauna in the Deciduous Forest Area
Some animals that are able to survive in the deciduous forest are bears, deer, racoon, squirrel, fox, and woodpecker.
g. Distribution of Fauna in the Taiga Region
Most birds that live in the taiga are migratory to the south in the fall. There is one typical animal that is usually found in the taiga, namely moose. In addition, there are also other animals such as forest bears, ajag, and marten.