As with other skills, a language user is also required to have language skills. In oral and written communication language skills are needed to deliver messages from the messenger (sender) to the recipient of the message (receiver). Logically, if someone wants to operate a computer, he must have sufficient computer skills. The better the skills, the more skilled he is at using the computer.
Skills or skills were also used in language. Not only in foreign languages, but even in Indonesian this skill is also needed. There are at least four language skills that must be mastered including: (1) listening skills, (2) reading skills, (3) speaking skills, and (4) writing skills. Of the four types of skills can be classified into two characteristics, namely productive and receptive skills (Ayudia, Suryanto, & Waluyo, 2016)
Productive skills means that there is an act (act) done by someone to produce a language. These skills include speaking and writing skills. Productive skills tend to be more difficult because someone is required to speak the language both in the form of speech and writing. Not even a few people who can’t write well and can’t speak well.
Read: The concept of teaching reading in English
Receptive skills include listening and reading skills. Both of these skills require one to understand a language both verbally and in writing such as vocabulary, diction, use of spelling, and punctuation.
4 Types of Language Skills
1. Writing Skills
This skill is said to be the most difficult of the 3 other skills. Writing requires someone to master the linguistic elements and the elements outside the linguistic which are arranged into a composition. Required use of regular and complete sentences. The written language also concerns spelling and punctuation that contain certain expressions or ideas. Variety of written language can be used to express ideas or ideas that are descriptive, narrative, exposition, persuasion, and argumentation.
2. Speaking skills
Speaking skills (speaking skills) is the ability to communicate to convey ideas or messages verbally (Tarigan, 1981: 15). Talking activity involves at least two people, namely speakers (speaker) and listerner (pendegar). The components that can be used as a benchmark for the success of speaking are pronunciation which includes emphasis, inttonation. (2) gramtical (grammar), (3) vocabulary , (3) fluency, (4) comprehension.
3. Listening Skills
Listening is also known as listening, but actually listening has a broader meaning. Listening means picking up sounds with ears, while listening means paying attention (listening) well to the information spoken by others. Besides listening also involves the vision, appreciation, remember, and understand an expression of the other person. Taringan (1991: 4) defines listening as a process that includes listening, identifying, interpreting, evaluating, and reacting to a language sound.
4. Reading skills
Reading is a skill to understand an idea or ideas that exist in written language. Reading means understanding vocabulary, writing systems, topics, word meanings, grammatical, and drawing conclusions. There are several reading techniques that can be used according to the type of text and reading purpose. These techniques include skimming, scanning, selecting, and skipping. Skimming means reading the text quickly and thoroughly to get an overview and important parts. Scanning means reading the text quickly with the aim of obtaining certain information needed by the reader. Selecting is to read a text that is done before reading the entire text, i.e. only on the title or subtitle. Skipping is a way to read by passing a passage that is understood or understood.