Violence against women does not only mean physical violence. It is broader and includes sexual, emotional, psychological and financial issues. The definition of violence against women according to the United Nations is in the form of any action of gender-based violence that produces or may produce physical, sexual or psychological harm that can injure or afflict women, including threats in the form of acts, coercion, or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether it occurs in public or in private life.
It is estimated that around 87,000 women were killed intentionally in 2017 worldwide, more than half or about 50000 people / 58 percent were killed by intimate partners or family members. That means about 137 women around the world are killed by their own family members every day. More than a third or 30 thousand women who were deliberately murdered in 2017 were killed by their previous partners or their current partners. Based on the little data above, a woman who is a victim of violence can be someone’s daughter, wife, mother, spouse or sister.
Types of Violence against Women
Violence against women is now recognized as a public health problem and a significant violation of human rights worldwide. This is an important risk factor for women’s health, with consequences that can reach their physical and mental health. Several types of violence against women include:
- Child abuse and neglect
Violence that can happen to girls and young girls is child abuse and neglect. Some children are subjected to abuse and neglect by their parents and other caregivers in all countries of the world. Types of violence against children include physical, sexual and psychological violence as well as neglect. The result can be fatal with the most common causes of death being head injuries, abdominal injuries, and suffocation from strangulation. The non-fatal consequences will take various forms of torture and neglect that require medical treatment and intervention by social services. Also know the impact of violence on children , the psychological impact of children experiencing violence , and how to avoid children from how to avoid children from verbal abuse.
- Torture based on culture
In several countries in the world there is a social preference for boys who ignore girls, in response to traditions and cultures that promote boys. This leads to, for example, abortion of a female fetus when it can be identified through ultrasound, deliberately malnourishing girls, or even killing a girl who is born. In countries where this practice is common, namely China, Taiwan, South Korea, India, Pakistan and several countries of sub-Saharan Africa, the ratio of women to men is lower than expected. Fortunately this incident occurred only in the past, and is not practiced in the present.
- Female Genital Mutilation
This type of violence against women is defined by WHO as partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genitals whether it is for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons. The term female circumcision is also often used to describe this procedure and it is performed on girls at different times in their lives depending on their backgrounds.
- Couple Torture
One of the most common types of violence against women that occurs in all levels of society is violence by male partners or former partners. The term partner or partner violence refers to the abuse that usually occurs between husbands and wives or between ex-partners. This torture can be physical, sexual, psychological abuse or a combination of these. Also consider the psychological impact of dating violence .
There are many myths about rape as a type of violence against women which means having sex outside the woman’s consent. These myths are based on stereotypes about what constitutes proper sexual behavior for men and women. For example most people associate rape with violent assaults by strangers, but rape is often committed by someone who knows the victim. There is also the assumption that rape leaves obvious signs of injury, but that is often not the case. Only about one-third of rape victims suffer physical injury.
- Honor Killing
This is the murder of a woman, usually committed by a brother, father or other male family member because he has brought a bad name to the family. This phenomenon has its roots in the notion of male dignity and the chastity of women that exists in various countries in the East Mediterranean. This means that the honor of a man is tied to the chastity of a woman sexually in his family. Losing chastity for any reason is considered defamation of family honor, and the only way to restore that honor is to kill him.
- Torture of the Elderly
Mistreatment of the elderly at home or in nursing homes is referred to as torture of the elderly and is defined as ‘a single or repeated act that occurs in any relationship where trust is expected, which causes injury or distress to the elderly’. This violence often occurs in developing countries physically, psychologically, or sexually, and financial or material violence, or complete neglect, of failure to fulfill elderly care obligations.
- Dating Violence
Dating violence is physical, sexual, emotional or verbal assault by a romantic or sexual partner. It occurs in all women at all races and ethnicities, occupations and educational levels. This also occurs across age ranges. Violence can be in the form of forced pregnancy, rape, bullying, beatings, separating and prohibiting meeting with family as well as friends and relatives, and much more.
- Financial Violence
Financial violence occurs when the torturer takes control of the finances to prevent the other party from leaving and maintains power in a relationship. A torturer can take control of all finances, withhold them and hide financial information from the victim. Financial violence can also occur in the elderly.
- Human Trafficking / Human Trafficking
This is a type of violence against women that takes the form of slavery. It occurs when a woman is forced or tricked into working in dangerous and illegal conditions or has sexual contact with another against her will. A person who is trafficked may be sedated, tied, beaten, starved or made to work long hours a day. Girls and women are the most common victims of sex trafficking, one of the types of trafficking.
- Emotional and Verbal Violence
Perhaps a woman does not think about experiencing this type of violence against women if she is not physically injured. But emotional and verbal abuse can have short-term and long-term effects that are as serious as physical injury. Emotional and verbal abuse includes insults, attempts to frighten, isolate, or control a woman. It is also a sign that physical violence will follow next. Know how to deal with psychological abuse and other types of psychological trauma .
This type of violence against women is any unacceptable behavior or comments made by one person to another. Sexual harassment is a term usually used to describe unwanted sexual contact or behavior that occurs more than once at work, home or school. This includes sexual advances or requests for sexual favors that can affect a person’s work, school work or home. Street harassment is behavior or comments that could be sexual and may target your gender, race, age, religion, nationality, ethnicity or sexual orientation.
- Family Violence
This term refers to violence between family members that involves the same behavior as domestic violence. This term is used to refer to experiences experienced in the family, to identify the broader scope of a marriage and the wider family relationship where the possibility or types of violence against women can occur. Also check out the types of psychological trauma and kinds of mental disorders due to love .
- Digital Violence
The meaning of this type of violence against women is violence that is committed using technology, especially on social media or text messages. Digital violence is more common among young adults, but it can also happen to anyone using technology such as smartphones or computers and the internet. This violence includes repeated unwanted phone calls or text messages, harassment on social media, pressure to send personal photos (sexting), insults, demanding immediate reply in emails, social media and text messages.
This type of violence against women is a serious violation of women’s human rights and is of direct concern in the public health sector as it contributes significantly if public health workers are properly trained. They are the officers closest to the victim, and possibly known to the victim, the community and the community closely. Local and community health services also play an important role in raising awareness among the public to prevent this violence. There is still debate as to what approach will be most effective for preventing gender based violence, but documentation and evaluation are key elements in building knowledge of this violence.