From various understanding of communication according to experts it can be concluded that in general communication is defined as the process of delivering or exchanging ideas or ideas, knowledge, and so forth. This process has implications for the delivery of information from the message source to the recipient of the message. This includes all procedures in which one person’s thoughts delivered face-to-face or through certain media have an impact on others. To be able to explain this very complex phenomenon of communication, experts from various disciplines then develop various kinds of communication theories referring to their respective perspectives.
One phenomenon that is closely related to communication is learning. According to the Dictionary, learning is defined as the process or way of making people or living things learn. According to Law No. 23 of 2003 concerning the National Education System, learning is the process of interaction of students with educators and learning resources in a learning environment. This understanding shows that in the learning system there are several important aspects which, according to Lindgren (1976), are referred to as students or students, the learning process in students, and the learning situation. From a communication point of view, the three important aspects that exist in this learning system are part of the communication components as well as beingapplication of the element of communication in the teaching and learning process .
Learning itself has several functions including the learning function as a system and the learning function as a process. As a system, learning consists of several well-organized components such as learning objectives, learning materials, learning strategies and methods, learning media, class organizing, learning evaluations, and follow-up learning. While learning as a process refers to a series of efforts made by the teacher or educator in order to make students or students learn, such as preparation, implementation, and follow-up to learning.
As with communication, learning is studied more deeply by using learning theory. Theory of learning according to Bruner focuses on how a person influences others so that the learning process occurs in him. In other words, the way or method of learning used in the learning process must also be discussed in learning theory. Because it is only through this method or method that students or students experience the learning process in themselves. For this reason, learning theory proposed by experts is actually aimed at establishing optimal learning methods. From this it follows that the learning theory reveals the relationship between learning activities and psychological processes that occur in students. (Also read:information processing theory ).
The above review shows that, learning theory implicitly contains the theory of communication. This has been stated previously by experts who view that learning activities cannot be separated from communication. This we can see from the focal point of learning theory that focuses on how a person influences other people so that the learning process occurs in students or students. In communication, the way a person influences other people is called persuasion which is one of the communication techniques. Then, learning activities that involve learning plans and communication between educators and students. In communication, this learning plan is closely related to effective communication strategies in learningand the process of communication between teacher or educator and students or students which involves elements of communication . The psychological process that occurs in students or students is closely related to the information processing. This is discussed thoroughly in intrapersonal communication theory and many more links between communication theory and learning theory.
It is very clear that communication theory and learning theory are related to one another. The relationship between communication theory and learning theory are as follows.
- The role of educators
In the teaching and learning process in the classroom, the teacher or educator acts as a communicator or source of messages. As a communicator, the teacher or educator must have credibility, attractiveness, and master communication skills. As a teacher or educator should be credible because it is related to the knowledge taught to students or students. Teachers or educators who do not master their knowledge will certainly not be seen as credible in the eyes of their students or students. In addition, the teacher or educator must also be able to convey information related to the knowledge taught to students or students appropriately so that it is easily understood by students or students. Some communication theories that dissect communicator problems include source credibility theory; nature theory; attribution theory; theories of beliefs, attitudes, and values; and self-presentation theory.
- Teaching style
Teaching style of a teacher or educator according to Ahmadi et al (2005) is the behavior, attitudes and actions of teachers in carrying out the teaching process. Teaching style of teacher or educator that can provide separate motivation for students or students to study hard.
- The role of students or students
The role of students or students in teaching and learning in class is as a recipient of a message or communicant. In learning communication, students or students are the core of learning communication. Here, students or students can play an active or passive role in the learning process. Active role means that students or students play an active and cooperative role in creating knowledge, developing competencies, being responsible for the activities carried out and managing their activities independently. While passive role means that students or students play a passive role in receiving information provided by the teacher or educator.
In learning communication, the messages or learning materials are types of information related to knowledge, expertise, skills, ideas or ideas, experiences, and so forth. In order for this message to be conveyed and well received by students or students, the teacher or educator must design the learning messages in an interesting manner as explained in the message production theory . Through an effective communication process , messages conveyed by teachers or educators as communicators are received, absorbed, and internalized by students or students as recipients of messages or communicants.
- Learning media
The media used in the learning communication process are not the same as the kinds of communication media in general. In a sense, there are several characteristics of learning media or learning media characteristics that must be understood by the teacher or educator as a communicator. This is very important because it is related to the message conveyed to students or students. As a teacher or educator must be able to choose and use appropriate learning media so that the message conveyed is truly acceptable and understood by students or students. The learning media commonly used are audio or visual media produced by teachers or educators and other audio visual media.
In the process of learning communication always occurs two-way communication or interaction between the teacher or educator with students or students. By Sadiman in Hidayat (2016) this interaction is called educative interaction. What is meant by educational interaction is an interaction that is done consciously and aims to educate students or students in order to lead them to maturity.
Interactions that occur in the learning communication process imply the existence of feedback given by students or students to the teacher or educator related to the learning material provided. Feedback given by students or students plays a very important role in determining the learning communication media used. This feedback also allows teachers or educators to reduce communication barriers that may arise during the learning communication process. The theory that can explain this feedback process is information theory in communication that is informative theory .
- The role of technology
Technology in the learning communication process plays a role in “bringing” learning material with the aim of repetition, repetition, feedback, innovative, constructive, cognitive, and communicative. Through this technology learning material can be delivered to students or large numbers of students more effectively and efficiently. The mathematical communication theory proposed by Shannon and Weaver explains this.
- Learning resources
The learning resources of students or students include learning material delivered by the teacher or educator. In addition, other sources of student learning are books, textbooks, magazines, audio and video recordings, the internet as a medium of communication, electronic encyclopedias, classmates, teachers or educators, and other experts who come from outside the school.
- Learning objectives
The learning objectives for students or students are to acquire knowledge and skills and keep them in mind. Other goals are to improve the ability of students or students to form knowledge, reconstruct, understand and use knowledge, cognitive flexibility, critical thinking, and the ability to overcome problems and share experiences.
- Methods and forms of teaching
The methods and forms of teaching that are often used are teaching directly to students or in groups, project methods, experiments, finding and synthesizing information, presentations, and so forth.
The learning communication process is generally based on a curriculum that has been prepared previously. The curriculum arranged can be based on several things such as based on projects, problem learning, dynamic and flexible or rigid curriculum, subjects and learning are placed in one theme.
The progress of students or students can be known through evaluations conducted. Generally the forms of evaluation conducted by teachers or educators to students or students are assessment, achievement tests, portfolio, summative evaluation, formative evaluation, self-evaluation, or evaluation by friends.
Benefits of Learning the Relationship of Communication Theory and Learning Theory
Studying the relationship between communication theory and learning theory can provide several benefits, including the following.
- We know and understand the notion of communication.
- We know and understand the understanding of communication theory.
- We know and understand the meaning of learning.
- We know and understand the understanding of learning theory.
- We know and understand the relationship between communication theory and learning theory.
Thus a brief review of the relationship between communication theory and learning theory. Hopefully it can broaden our horizons and knowledge about communication theory and learning theory and the relationship between the two.