From various sources it was found that the term clipper refers to the clapperboard, which is a device used in the process of making films and videos to help synchronize images and sound, mark various scenes and take these pictures to match those recorded. Other terms for clapperboard are clapper, clapboard, clacker, slate, slate board, slapperboard, sync slate, time slate, sticks, board, smart slate, dumb slate, and sound marker. If a situation or condition occurs where the sound and image in the film are incompatible or out of sync then this is called a lip flap. Also read: Film Producer Duties
So what is a clipper?
According to the dictionary, clipper is generally interpreted as a cutting tool. The result of this cutting is called clipping, which means cutouts or cuts. Meanwhile, the cut is called a clipped. In the electronic field, a clipper is a circuit designed to prevent a signal from exceeding a predetermined reference voltage level. Clipper does not change the remaining part of the applied waveform. Clipping circuits are used to select parts of the signal waveform located above or below the specified reference voltage level for the purpose of transmission. Also read: Crew Duty in Film
In the field of film or video, Sonja Schenk and Ben Long in their book The Digital Filmmaking Handbook (2012) state that clipping refers to the electronic limits imposed on audio or parts of a video signal to avoid too loud noise or too bright video display, too saturated or too dark. Understanding clipping in the field of film and video is in line with the notion of clipping in the electronic field. From the description above it can be said that the clipper in the film making process refers to a kind of circuit that is used to prevent an audio signal, image, light or color beyond a predetermined reference voltage level. An overview of audio signals, images, clipped or clipped light or color is indicated by a straight line in the form of visible waves on the monitor screen. Also read:Backsound Function in Filming
Usually, to monitor this signal wave, a device called a waveform monitor and vectorcope is used as well as a high-quality monitor. Waveform is a device used to monitor light. Whereas Vector Monitor monitors color. This monitoring is usually done on the set when taking digital pictures. Through these two tools, cinematographers with the help of digital imaging technicians can find out and understand how the final film will look. Also read: The Role of a Script Writer in a Film
The functions of the clipper in the film making process are as follows.
- Keep the signal within the specified limits
The function of the clipper in the first film-making process is to keep the signal within the specified limits. This is done by reducing the signal level. Another way is to improvise the system to support the highest signal level without having to cause clipping. (Also read: Composition in Cinematography )
- Cut unwanted parts
The function of the clipper in the process of making the next film is to cut unwanted parts of the wave. However, this cutting does not distort the remaining waves. For example, cut any white that is brighter than the specified white level or cut any sound that enters the red area on the audio level meter. (Also read: Stuntman Function in Film )
- Erase certain parts of the wave
Clipper in the film making process also serves to remove certain parts of the wave, especially random waves that are near the positive peak or negative peak or both. This removal results in changes in waveforms and their central components. (Also read: Indonesian Film History )
- Get a rectangular wave form
Another function of the clipper in the film making process is to obtain a rectangular waveform. Waveforms like this occur if positive and negative peaks must be limited. To limit these two peaks, two diodes are used to prevent the output signal from exceeding the values specified for the two peaks. The two peaks are then removed or removed to form a rectangular wave. This is related to the clipper function to remove certain parts of the wave. (Also read: Storyboard Function in Filming )
- Remove the image beam
The final function of the clipper in the film making process is to eliminate image highlights due to incorrect exposure when photographing or scanning to digital images. Increased exposure can increase the amount of light collected or increase the level of sensor sensitivity. Furthermore, this increase causes the brightest areas, such as the sky or light sources. (Also read: Artistic Functions in Film – Management Functions in Film Production
Thus a brief review of the function of the clipper in the process of making films. Hopefully it can add insight and our knowledge about the clipper and its function in filmmaking.