The Nubians are a native ethnic group that currently lives in Sudan and southern Egypt. Several groups called Hill Nubians occupy the Northern Nuba Mountains in South Kordofan, Sudan. They are among the first cradles of civilization, coming from ancient inhabitants of the central valley of the Nile. This ethnic group has a traditional history dating back to the Egyptian dynasties. They commonly speak Nubian languages belonging to the Nilo-Saharan family
The history of Nubia dates back thousands of years. They are descendants of the ancient African civilization. They had ruled an empire that extended to the northeast of the African continent. The Nubians lived in the area along the Nile River, currently known as southern Egypt and northern Sudan. This region also has the name of Nubia. In 4 th century, Christianity was adopted by many Nubians but later in the 15 th and 16 th centuries, most Nubians converted to Islam during the rule of the Arabs. Later in 1956, when Sudan separated from Egypt, the Nubian community was divided between the two countries.
This great and rich history of the Nubians faced a great threat during the British government and later the Egyptian governments. The two governments have built a series of dams that have triggered the transfer of many Nubians from their homeland to new areas. Aswan The high dam built at 1970 transformed most of Nubia into the basin of Lake Nasser. Most of the Nubians moved 50 kilometers inland to Kom Ombo while some were scattered along the Nile and its islands.
Historically Nubia was a region of different cultures. Nubian geography has strongly influenced ancient cultural development. The Nubians have a culture celebrated in novels, poetry, storytelling and music. In ancient times, different groups clung to different cultures. Group C worked on ceramics and practiced Pan Grave culture because they were used to making shallow graves to bury their dead. Modern southern Nubians like Mahas, Sikurta and Danaqla use their scripts to write. The women and men of Mahas practice scarification where they make three scars on each cheek. Danaqla, on the other hand, wears the scars on the temples.
Islam is the main religion practiced by the Nubians in present times. Many Nubians were Christians in the 4th century. Nepata served as an important center of worship for the Nubians in ancient times. Here stood Gebel Barkal, a sandstone hill that resembled a roaring cobra. Nubian queens and kings were buried near Jebel Barkal, in pyramids similar to those of the pharaohs. Later, even the Egyptian priests declared Gebel Barkal a home for Amon, the ancient deity. The Nubians worshiped the Nubian and Egyptian deities for the 2,500s, even while leading the new kingdom of Egypt. Mass conversions to Islam have occurred with the establishment of Arab rule in the region.