Who are the Circassians?

The Circassian people are part of the northwestern ethnic groups of the Caucasus, initially by the Circassia. Most of these people were displaced when the Russians invaded Circassia in the early 19th century. In 1864, a war broke out between the Russians and the Circassia, people were moved to other regions. The term Circassian is a combination of 12 Adyghe sub-tribes composed of three “democratic” tribes and nine aristocrats.

Each of the sub-tribes is represented by a star, which is printed on the Circassian flag. Most Circassians are Muslim and speak the Circassian language as their main language, which includes three main dialects and many sub-dialects. Having been exiled from Russian domination, some people went to Turkey, England, the Arab nations and Russia. Therefore, most Circassians can speak foreign languages. There were about 800,000 Circassians left in their homeland.


Christianity spread in the Circassian nation due to Greek and Byzantine influence. The people of Circassia accepted Christianity as a state religion, but these people hold indigenous beliefs firmly. In the 17th century, the Ottoman empire invaded the nation of Circassia in which the invading doctrine spread throughout the country. The Circassians converted to Islam, some of the changes of the Circassian rose in the faith to become mamluks, and others also became Sultans in Egypt during the 1250-1517 period of the Mamluks. In 2016, it was discovered that most of the people residing in Egypt are the descendants of the Circassian people.

Circassian Russian invasion

The Russians slowly invaded the territory of the Circassia and towards the middle of the nineteenth century, the nation of the Circassia was under the dominion of the Russians. During the attack, a series of wars exploded like a Circassian fight against invasion. During that time, the Circassian people became very popular for its rigidity and long resistance to colonialism. Many people of Adyghe died at the end of the wars in the nineteenth century. When the Circassian people were defeated, the Russian general led the few Circassians who had survived the battle outside the region. The military invoked a scan order from 1860 to 1864. At the end of the four years, the southern part of the Caucasus was empty of the original inhabitants.

Post-exile period

The Circassian people who had been hunted went ahead and established settlements in the Ottoman Empire, some of which crossed many other regions that included the Middle East. Turkey became the largest nation of Adyghe and the Circassian people spread to many areas of Turkey, consisting of Samsun along the Black Sea coast and others in the Ankara region. The estimate of the population of the Circassian people living in Syria is between the 50,000 and 100,000 people. The Circassian people were suggesting that they could return to Circassia after the intensification of the war in Syria.

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