What was the industrial revolution?
The industrial revolution is a period that saw the transition from an artisanal economy to an economy dominated by machines and technological innovations. The industrial revolution began in Britain and gradually spread to Europe and took place from the mid-1770s to the mid-1880s. The revolution affected the main sectors of the economy, including textiles, agriculture, metal production, transport and social policies. and economic in Europe.
Origins, diffusion and development
The industrial revolution began in Britain in the early 1770s. Before the revolution, most people lived in small communities in rural Britain. Their daily lives revolved around agriculture. Most people engaged in subsistence production and produced clothes, food and tools. Britain was the cradle of the industrial revolution because it had large deposits of coal mines, iron ore and was politically stable. Furthermore, Britain was a colonial power and its overseas colonies, particularly in Africa, served as sources of raw materials. Aware of their advantage, Britain has banned the export of all forms of machinery and production and processing techniques and skilled labor. However, as Britain has adopted the use of machines in their industries, British businessmen need more profits to take them to other European markets. Belgium benefited in particular from British merchants and became the second county to experience the industrial revolution after Britain. While Britain and Belgium were passing, France was ending the French Revolution and was slowly adopting the revolution.
Technological innovations and inventions
Agriculture and textile industries have experienced the first breakthrough in innovative technologies. Before mechanization, merchants supplied raw materials and exchange instruments and eventually collected the finished products from one house to another; this chain has resulted in loss of time and inefficiency. The rotating jenny developed by James Hargreaves became a significant role in the transformation of the textile industry. Samuel Compton later modified the Spinning Jenny into a more efficient whirlpool. Methods for cast iron were also introduced using coke and not coal. In the 1850s, Henry Bessemer developed an economical and efficient method to produce steel in series. The invention of the steam engine proved to be of great importance; the engine was used to pump the
Changes in work structures and living and urbanization standards
The period of industrialization was characterized by an increase in companies and raw materials. The demand for labor increased with the expansion of companies. Initially, the owners who were the managers of these companies considered the employees as nothing more than a source of cheap labor. As the period progressed, employees began forming unions that demanded better working conditions and payments. Strikes and slowdowns became frequent as employees took over thanks to collective bargaining and the fact that skilled work was difficult to replace. As employers paid more, the cost of living changed and cities began to develop. People moved into urban environments in search of better jobs and social services. Child labor has become rampant as they were cheaper than adults and parents considered employment a better option than education.
Efficiency and productivity, and the effects of the revolution on the environment
The use of machines and skilled labor has introduced efficiency into production systems. The machines proved more productive than human labor; they were effective and more efficient. Specialization and division of labor meant that employees were assigned specific parts of the production chain where they were most productive. However, the revolution has had negative effects on the environment. Coal mining has led to large pirogues that have been left uncovered; there has been massive pollution from coal engines and companies. Deforestation has increased and water sources have become polluted by factory waste.
Aftermath And Legacy
The industrial revolution is considered the cradle of modern industrialization, it marked a significant transition of the world economies, in particular of the European economies. Technological innovations have spread throughout the world and there has been a mass sharing of knowledge and technology. The revolution paved the way for the second revolution in the 19th century, which was marked by the use of robots, aircraft and advanced technologies.