Romantic art is probably a somewhat difficult stage in art history since it had many influences from other art styles and although it was tried to differentiate from neoclassicism it was seldom done correctly since, as we have said previously, it was somewhat difficult to buy it .
The definition of romantic art is probably one of the shortest definitions of all types of art. This type of art originated in France, during the time of the Second Empire, when new trends and artistic techniques appeared and were used to create a contradiction with neoclassical art . In other words, romantic art was an artistic movement that was born to create a contradiction with classical art and, therefore, this style of art tried to educate and excite the viewer.
Characteristics of Romantic art
- Art ceases to be governed by the doctrine of Classicism.
- The main objective of art is not beauty, but the expression and feelings that can open much wider horizons.
- A desire emerges for the new, unusual, hidden, repressed , in a word, the sublime , that which is beyond the limit, to appear. This anxiety causes much more aesthetic pleasure than beauty.
- Subjectivity prevails to the detriment of the objective. Through art, an attempt is made to express the artist’s inner world, even if this requires recourse to dark worlds , gloom or dreams .
- The issue of magnitude becomes important . The world is felt as something immeasurable to which man is unable to reach. This generates a feeling of inferiority and anguish before the uncontrollable forces of Nature.
- National History prevails . In Romanticism the pride of local languages rises, the deep roots of native peoples. The remote origins of the primordial are sought .
- Love of the Middle Ages and its values: ruralization, feudalism and, in general, everything that enlightened rationalism rejected.
- There is a deep experience of religion .
- A taste for the exotic prevails . The different is valued , hence the gaze is deeply fixed on eastern worlds .
History of this art class
The romantic concept is used to describe an art class that appeared in the early nineteenth century and that had certain characteristics that were the connection with nature, open emotions and feelings, individualism and drama. However, this style of art was compared to classicism, classicism was based mainly on techniques used in ancient classical art mainly in its architecture and sculpture. It is for this reason that the difference between romanticism and classicism is not completely clear since the artists who considered themselves “romantics” in turn were inspired and took techniques from classic works of art.
On the other hand, it is difficult to define the precise moment in which “neoclassicism” ends and the “romanticism” period begins. It is for this reason that for years it has been decided to divide the “neoclassical” stage into various artistic movements depending on the theme. These stages are:
- Horrific Neoclassical
- Neoclassical erotic
- Archaeological neoclassical
In the Enlightenment century, this artistic discipline was pushed into the background because it was considered a simple game to entertain and entertain the artist’s spirit through the senses. However, in the romantic stage it gave an important place to music since, according to romantic artists, music freed you from any limitation of reason, from any given concept or image, and furthermore, these artists considered it to be the best art to express the universal secret. Romantic music supposedly originated in the year 1800 and includes some artists who were believed to belong to Classicism.
What characterizes the romantic painting of the other painting styles was its eagerness to try to show the landscape . According to the romantic artists, their desire to try to reflect the background is attributed to the attempt to correctly reflect the “limitless” and the infinite. This attempt to reflect infinity was not only reflected in the painting but was also reflected in the poetry. The landscaping of the romantic style is an evolution of the landscape that used classicist art. However, it is differentiated by:
- Easily show the vastness and monotony of nature and its elements
- A new posture of humans facing the natural world.
In Romantic art in terms of romantic sculpture, it was only present in some figures of English gardens and it also stood out in funeral sculpture, although that was never truly romantic sculpture. But there are no great outstanding works at this stage either, since sculpture has only been investigated in literature.
Romantic architecture originated in both France and England in the mid-18th century. In this architectural style it had two problems, these problems were:
- What was as comfortable as possible at the lowest price were normally private use buildings.
- Make it as comfortable as possible for a specific number of people.
These problems caused that the romantic architecture was used mainly in a utilitarian and not decorative way. Since they used the buildings for the accommodation of people.
Representatives of Romantic art in Europe
Gros: He has been considered as the artist who represents the transition from Neoclassicism to Romanticism. The first romantics were formed in David’s workshop, Gros being a disciple of his. This artist the Romanticism of the color that later the artist Delacroix would develop. A Gros developed the guidelines of Rubens , an artist that greatly interested the master David, leading him to movement and color. This trend will undoubtedly affect Géricault and Delacroix. When Gros was a student, Josefina Bonaparte presented him to Napoleon in 1797 for the Prize of Rome. Napoleon integrated him into his court and made him a direct witness to battles and military life. Gros lived through a shocking spectacle that translated into his painting.
His most representative works are:
Napoleon on the Arcole Bridge, 1798-1800; Napoleon and the Plagued by Jaffa, 1804; Napoleon and the Plagued by Jaffa, 1804; The Battle of Eylau, 1807-1808; The Battle of Eylau, 1807-1808, oil on canvas; Lieutenant Charles Legrand of 1810; among others.
Ingres: Born in Montauban, he is the son of an artisan businessman, which explains his early artistic tendencies. He trained in the conservative Toulousse , allows him an older and more severe training, but not for that reason ceasing to be extraordinary. In 1797 he entered the workshop of David, who immediately realized its exceptional qualities. Throughout the History of Art, Ingres has been a poorly understood and framed figure. He is an artist little studied because of the difficulty his work poses, difficult to classify within a style