Called normative grammar or prescriptive the grammar that seeks to dictate or prescribe the grammatical rules of a language , [ 1 ] placing their prescriptions as the only correct embodiment of the tongue and categorizing other possible ways wrong. Normative grammars are often based on the dialects used by the most prestigious speakers in a linguistic community .
The grammar is divided into: phonology, morphology and syntax.
Phonology : study of phonemes, letters and points of articulation. It is the branch of linguistics that studies the sound system of a language, from the point of view of its function in the system of linguistic communication. This is an area very related to phonetics, but the two have different focus of study.
- orthoépia – studies the correct pronunciation of words;
- prosody – studies the determination of the stressed syllable, rhythm and speech melody;
- spelling – studies the written representation of the language.
Morphology : study of the composition of words, word classes and grammatical classes. It is the part of the grammar that studies the words observed in isolation. It studies the structure and formation of words, their inflections and their classification. So, it is from these elements that form the word that the name of morphic elements or morphemes is given.
Syntax : studies the relationship between words in a sentence and the relationship between sentences in a period. The syntax is concerned with the function of each term of the sentence.
- agreement – deals with the relationship between subject and verb (verbal agreement) and the relationship between names (nominal agreement). In the latter case, it deals with the relations between noun in relation to the article, adjective, numeral, etc.);
- regency – deals with the relationship between verbs and prepositions (verbal regency) and name and prepositions (nominal regency);
- placement – deals with the placement of certain words in the sentence.
- pronominal : proclisis, mesoclysis, enclisis.