Feminism is an ideological and political movement that seeks equality and equity for women in all aspects, including social, political, personal and economic ones. This movement recognizes that inequalities occur based on class, gender, mental and physical abilities, sex, race and sexuality. Feminists, people who believe in feminism, the campaign for equal pay and opportunities in the workplace, paid maternity leave and reproduction rights (to name a few). Furthermore, feminists campaign against domestic violence, discrimination, sexual harassment and rape
History of feminism
The term “feminism” dates back to 1837 when it was first used by the French philosopher Charles Fourier. By 1872, the word had spread to the Netherlands and Britain since the 1890s and the United States from 1910. The academics have not yet reached an agreement on which movements should be attributed to feminism. Some argue that any movement for women’s rights should be credited as feminism, even if the word was not used to describe movement. Others argue that only modern feminist movements should be considered feminists. It is generally accepted, however, that feminism can be divided into historical movements 3.
Feminism of the first wave
The feminism of the first wave occurred during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The main objective during this era was on property rights, marriage, parenting and equal contracts. At the end of the 19th Century, the feminist movement was centered on women’s right to vote. The first countries to issue women’s suffrage were New Zealand in 1893, South Australia in 1895 and Australia in 1902. It took a little longer in the United States, which first agreed to women’s right to vote national in 1920, and in Great Britain, which followed shortly thereafter in 1921.
Second wave feminism
The feminism of the second wave occurred during the mid-twentieth century. In many countries of the world, women have continued to fight for the right to vote and equal rights in marriage. At that time, men still had control over their wives. This wave of feminism continues today and is interested in achieving gender and political equality, as well as ending gender discrimination. Furthermore, the second wave of feminism has introduced the idea that women’s personal lives are a reflection of deeply rooted political and sexist power struggles. An example of this is the idea that women should be responsible for childcare.
Third wave feminism
Third-wave feminism began in the late twentieth century and continues to the present day. In a sense, it coexists with the feminism of the second wave, although it is rooted in the premise that the feminism of the second wave has been largely unsuccessful. Proponents of third-wave feminism believe that the feminism of the second wave concerns only the issues concerning white women of the upper middle class. Furthermore, this movement has brought sexuality to the fore, suggesting that female emancipation could be achieved through sexuality. Within this wave there are different opinions. In particular, some people believe that men and women are inherently different. Others believe that men and women have no differences and that the
Ideologies of feminism
Over the years, various ideologies of feminism have evolved. These include feminism social constructionism, materialist feminism and black and postcolonial feminism.
Ideology of social housing
Followers of social constructionist feminism believe that gender is a social construction. They believe that what defines “male” or “female” is a person’s culture and that women’s experiences cannot be generalized. Post-structural feminism and postmodern feminism fall under this ideology.
Supporters of materialist ideology criticize the patriarchal approach to capitalism. Within this ideology there is Marxist feminism, socialist feminism and anarchist feminism. Marxist feminists believe that capitalism is the root of women’s inequality, even nationally and professionally. Socialist feminists believe that women must work to abolish economic and cultural oppression. Anarchist feminists believe that social class is created by patriarchy.
Black and postcolonial ideology
Followers of this ideology believe that feminism has historically focused on the struggles and oppression of white women, particularly the middle class. Black and postcolonial ideology was promoted by women in developing and postcolonial countries. The idea behind this view is that colonialism is responsible for the oppression of women. Under this ideology there is feminism, third world feminism and indigenous feminism.
The impact of feminism
The argument that women are equal to men and as such should have equal and equitable opportunities has led to significant changes in a wide range of social issues. The feminist movement has helped establish the right of women to choose early termination of pregnancy, better access to birth control, the right to property, the right to work and equal pay (although in many countries women still receive less salaries for the same job) and greater access to education. With these rights, more women have begun to enter the workforce, which has led to many changes in social norms regarding their accepted family responsibilities. However,
The language was also influenced by the feminist movement. Gender-neutral language has been adopted in several countries. This language has attempted to counter the existence of a gender-specific language that often denotes a higher level of importance for men. The use of a gender-specific language further perpetuates unequal social states. This is especially true for career-type words that ignore women’s participation in the profession. Examples of gender-specific professions (and their gender-neutral counterparts) include policeman (police officer), fireman (fireman), president (president) and hostess or steward (flight attendant).
Feminism has even influenced traditional religious practices in what is called feminist theology. This theology has promoted the greater participation of women as members of the clergy and religious authorities. Furthermore, he contributed to the analysis of the representation of women in the religious text. At the international level, the UN General Assembly has created a bill for women, known as the Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.
Criticism of feminism
The criticism of feminism is sometimes called anti-feminism. Historically, criticism of feminism has been rooted in the position of opposition to the demands of the feminist movement. For example, many people were against women’s right to vote during the suffrage movement. Other opponents disagree with access to birth control and reproductive rights, the involvement of women in the workforce and the achievement of higher education by women. Many of these positions are rooted in the idea that feminism is contrary to traditional and religious beliefs. Opponents suggest that feminism is the demoralization of society. Other critics of feminism argue that feminism promotes the antipathy of men, boys and the male gender. They suggest that feminism brings women’s issues to a higher level of importance and ignores the needs of men. This attitude, they believe, is harmful to both men and women.