The cuneiform writing is the general name given to certain types of writing made with the aid of in format objects wedge . It is, together with the Egyptian hieroglyphs , the oldest known type of writing, having been created by the Sumerians around 3,200 BC Initially the writing represented forms of the world ( pictograms ), but by practicality the forms were becoming simpler.
The first pictograms were engraved on tablets, clay pot , in vertical sequences of writing with a stylus made of cane that recorded vertical, horizontal and oblique strokes. Until then, two new features made the process faster and easier: people started writing in horizontal sequences (rotating the pictograms in the process), and a new slanted wedge stylus started to be used to push the clay, while producing signs in the form of wedge. By adjusting the relative position of the tablet to the stylus, the writer could use a single tool to make a wide variety of signs.
Cuneiform tablets could be roasted in ovens to provide a permanent record; or the tablets could be reused if there was no need to keep records for a long time. Many of the tablets found by archaeologists have been preserved because they were roasted during the arson attacks of enemy armies against the buildings in which the tablets were kept.
Cuneiform script was subsequently adopted by the Akkadians, Babylonians , Elamites , Hittites and Assyrians and adapted to write in their own languages; it was widely used in Mesopotamia for approximately 3,000 years, although the syllabic nature of the manuscript (as established by the Sumerians) is not intuitive to Semitic language speakers. Before the discovery of the Sumerian civilization, the use of cuneiform writing despite the difficulties led many philologists to suspect the existence of a precursor civilization to the Babylonian one. Its invention was due to the management needs of palaces and temples (tax collection, registration of cattle, cereal measures, etc.).
The oldest record found so far dates from the 14th century BC and is written in cuneiform symbols of the Akkadian language . The piece of written clay was found in Jerusalem by Israeli archaeologists. [ 1 ]
the last document recorded in cuneiform script from Mesopotamian society is an astronomical almanac dated to 75 AD, where the movements of the stars are recorded month by month. [