In other words, conscription is known as military conscription. It is an obligatory act of enlisting people, especially in military service. The current way of conscription of young men was discovered during the French revolution in the year 1789, for which he created a stronghold for military service. Other European nations subsequently emulated this act and applied it to their fit and aged men. Currently many countries have stopped consigning their soldiers. Instead, they depend on those who are willing and qualified without undergoing conscription.
Arguments in favor of conscription
Conscription is a very controversial topic with many people for and against. Those for conscription claim that it strengthens social equality among the people of the nation and works to break down class divisions. With all those working for the same purpose, it creates a social conscience, and raises the moral and national pride of the country. Not only is a right seen, but a privilege to be able to fight for one’s country. Other arguments include that conscription is a cost-effective way to educate and instil maturity in young adults who otherwise could not afford higher education.
Arguments against conscription
Historically, conscription was exclusively male. Many argue that conscription falls into gender-based discrimination because only men are called to arms. The patriarchal nature of the military leaves little room for women’s progress. It also creates a stigma on those unable to fight due to disability or illness.
Furthermore, this can lead to economic crises as eligible workmen are called to fight. This not only causes productivity problems, but does not bring economic benefits to the military as it is financed by the ailing economy.
Another argument against conscription is the involuntary nature. The forced slavery of conscription goes against individual rights and freedoms. Critics of conscription claim that this puts the life of the individual under that of the state – that the state can control the strength of people to give up their lives in battle without their consent.
Countries with conscription today
Today there are several countries with forced military service. However, conscription differs from country to country.
Many countries have conscription in name only. In Brazil, Denmark and Norway, conscription continues by law, but not in practice, where most of the recruits are voluntary and are not forced to serve against their will. In Bolivia, conscription is performed only when the volunteers do not meet the required numbers.
In Austria, Switzerland, Sweden, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland and Greece, conscription continues although an alternative service is available. Those who are against conscription for political or religious reasons can instead serve under an alternative civil service. In Austria, the alternative service is known as Zivildienst and out of 1/3 of those enrolled choose to serve their time under alternative civilian service instead of military service.
In the United Arab Emirates, conscription is mandatory for all males between the ages of 18 and 30. Conscription was implemented in the United Arab Emirates in 2014. In Jordan, conscription was suspended in 1999 and reintroduced in 2007.
Some countries apply military service for men and women. Bolivia, Cape Verde, Chad, Eritrea, Israel, North Korea, Norway, Sweden and Venezuela all have mixed gender conscription. In Israel, men need 3 years while women serve 2. In Israel, many religious Zionist women choose to serve in the Sherut Leumi, an alternative voluntary service.
Some countries have similar obligations to conscription, although conscription is no longer active. In the United States, all men must register with the selective care system within 30 days of their 18th birthday although conscription has been suspended in 1973. Similarly, in Poland, the assessment of military obligation in case of war is required. although conscription was suspended in 2009.