Cloze test was first published by Wilson Taylor in 1953. Cloze test is a type of text where the reader is required to fill in the deleted words with the correct words. Usually the omitted words are provided randomly so that the reader only needs to find and match which words are the right words to complete the missing sentence.
The use of cloze test is considered more effective in measuring the level of readability of a text because it involves the reader directly so that he can see the extent of his understanding of the text.
Cloze test is designed by removing certain word order ( n -th word). Usually from words 5 – 12. The first sentence and the last sentence are left as clues to the reader.
Types of Cloze Test :
- Cloze Test Standard
In the standard cloze test , words that are erased are usually in the order of 5-12 words.
No parent wants their child to grow up using bad language – this much is true of nearly every parent, and at least every good one. Therefore, it seems reasonable ________ to stop children reading ________ that are full of ________ language. The same thing ________ for sex, violence, drugs, ________ a whole lot of ________ things. But, the important is ________ is to keep things ________ . If an eight year ________ picks up a book ________ is full of these ________ , then the book was ________ written for eight years________ in the first place. The book is clearly not appropriate age for them and they should not be allowed to read it until they are older.
- Modified Cloze Test
This type of test is based on the purpose of the test maker on what he wants to achieve in providing the test. For example, want to measure the ability of grammar or mastery of vocabulary . So, the words that are written off relate to grammar or vocabulary .
Examples of cloze tests related to grammar , deleted words are verb :
No parent wants their child to grow up using bad language – this much is true of nearly every parent, and at least every good one. Therefore, it ________ reasonable enough to ________ children reading books that are full of bad language. The same thing ________ for sex, violence, drugs, and a whole lot of other things. But, the important thing is to ________ things age-appropriate. If an eight year old ________ up a book that is full of these things, then the book was never ________ for eight years old in the first place. The book is clearly not appropriate age for them and they should not be allowed to read it until they are older.
- Cloze Test Multiple-Choice
This form of test provides multiple-choice answers .
No parent wants their child to grow up using bad language – this much is true of nearly every parent, and at least every good one. Therefore, it seems reasonable (1) ________ to stop children reading (2) ________ that are full of (3) ________ language.
(1) a. lack b. less c. enough d. empty
(2) a. novel b. books c. comics d. magazines
(3) a. good b. well c. bad d. clear
Cloze Test Procedure:
(1) Select the text to be tested.
(2) Deleting words by certain deletion methods. There are 3 ways to delete words in a cloze test:
- Fixed-Ratio Method
This method eliminates the order of certain words consistently. If the word deleted is the 7th word, henceforth every 7th word is deleted.
- Variable-Ratio Method
In this method, words are deleted according to the purpose of the text creator about what he wants to be measured from the reader. For example, wanting to measure the reader’s understanding of the use of verbs , each verb is removed. Similarly, if you want to know the abiding of nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, etc .
- Modified Fix-Ratio Method
Almost similar to the fix ratio method , the difference is to skip certain words that are considered unsuitable for deletion, such as the person’s name, place, date, month, and so on. So this method is called the modified fix ratio method.
(3) Distributing tests to students.
(4) Correct student answers. There are 2 common scoring techniques used:
- Exact Method
The answer is considered correct if it is exactly the same as the word deleted.
- Acceptable Method
If the answers are not too similar but close to the word being deleted, then it is considered correct.
After correcting the answers, the next level is at the result level:
1) Independent Level
Students are able to understand texts well with their own abilities.
2) Instructional Level
Students can understand the text but still need teacher’s help.
3) Frustration Level
Students have difficulty understanding the text because it does not fit their level.
|Independent Level||60% and above|
|Instructional Level||60% – 40%|
|Frustration Level||40% and below|