What are pituitary adenomas?
The pituitary adenomas are very frequent and are the third most common form of cancer of the central nervous system. They can cause a clinical syndrome by excess production of the synthesized hormone or, by compression, a reduced secretion of hormones produced by other cell types. The pituitary adenomas in relation to the dimensions are divided into microadenomas (maximum diameter less than the cm) and in macroadenomas (maximum diameter equal to or greater per cm).
Based on the secretory state, pituitary adenomas are classified into non-functioning adenomas (or NFPA) and functioning adenomas:
Secreting PRLs (or PRL-omi); GH-secreting (or GH-omi or somatotropinomas, cause acromegaly); ACTH- secrets (or ACTH-omi, cause Cushing’s disease); TSH- secrets (or TSH-omi or thyrotropinomas); gonadotropin-secreting (or Gn-omi or gonadotropinomas); mixed secretion such as PRL- and GH-secreting or PRL- GH- and TSH secreting. Prolactinomas are the most frequent.
Frequently, the detection of a pituitary adenoma can be incidental, during CT or magnetic resonance imaging tests of the brain. All hormones produced by the pituitary must be evaluated to exclude hypo or hormonal hyperproduction. In the case of macroadenoma, an ophthalmologic and possibly neurosurgical evaluation should be performed in the event of compression symptoms.