As the name suggests, hunter-gatherers are people who get livelihood by collecting their needs from nature. Historical records show that man used hunting and gathering for about 90% of his entire time on earth. The reason why the first men were hunter-gatherers was that it was easier for him to choose and hunt his livelihood from his generous surroundings than to carry out extremely strenuous activities by cultivating and raising domestic livestock. Anthropologists have concluded that all scientifically verified and sought after hunter-gatherers were and are meat eaters even though some of these peoples also added plants to their daily diet. While those living in temperate regions have survived only meat and fish.
The first hunter-gatherers were found to live in sparsely wooded areas where the game was easy to catch and most of their wild plants mattered that dietary requirements were easier to obtain and collect. Fruit, vegetables, eggs, nuts and seafood were also part of their natural daily diet. These people did not need personal property except for those who hunted and gathered in the municipal system. They had more free time and spent only 12 to 19 hours a week to get food. This gave them more time to socialize. In general, their health was much better than modern man with all his comforts.
Challenges and decline
Modern man and his lifestyle have made hunter-gatherer societies disappear. The introduction of drugs, tobacco and alcohol has deeply affected this way of living of people in a very destructive way. This new influence has also brought modern diseases to these hunter-gatherer communities around the world. Before these social diseases, these people did not know heart disease, cancer, obesity, diabetes and hypertension. They lived in communities that equally shared the generosity of the earth. There were probably about 8 million people who were all hunter gatherers 10,000 years ago. Today hunter-gatherers are part of the indigenous peoples of all the continents of the world.
Temporary settlements have marked the lifestyle of hunter-gatherer populations. They lived a semi-sedentary or sedentary lifestyle that was part of their generous environment. Although they were nomads and semi-nomads, they all led a lifestyle without a leader. They were led by a person who had the necessary skills at that particular time, such as hunting or making weapons. The hunt was particularly important for survival as in the Aeta people of the Philippines, in the Martu of Australia and in the Ju ‘/ hoansi tribes of Namibia. The hunt was equally shared between men and women with the latter who had the best success of the hunted animals. The true hunter-gatherer populations of the world have diminished since the introduction of the
In the modern world there are still hunter-gatherers, but the changing times have increasingly forced these populations to at least partially survive cultivated agricultural products, as in Africa where many nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes have become more stationary. The scarcity of natural gifts as in the past and the increase in population especially in Africa has changed the game. Herdsmen, nomads and foragers are all classified under the hunter-gatherer system. North America has its Eskimos, North American Indians and South American Indians. Siberia has its Evenki, Ket, Nivkhi and Itelmen. Japan has its Ainu people. Madagascar has its Mikea tribes while Kenya has its Dorobo peoples. Malaysia has its own Negrito groups and China has its Drung peoples.