In exchanging matter with the environment, animal cells have something in common. For example, to get energy, from organic nutrients, to multiply, detect, and respond to stimuli from the environment immediately.
In general, animals begin life as a single cell that is divided into two cells. Next, each cell divides again into four cells. And so on, this process of division.
Where cells that have special functions, then grouped to form tissue. This time portal-ilmu.com will give a discussion about vertebrate animal networks. In addition, it will be associated with its function.
This vertebrate body is composed of four levels of the organization of life. The levels of these organisms are cells , tissues, organs, and organ systems. Where several types of cells that make up the body of vertebrates will experience differentiation and specialization in the period of embryonic growth and development.
The embryo then develops by forming three embryonal layers. The arrangement of the embryonal layer from the outside to the inside is called the ectoderm layer, mesoderm layer, and endoderm layer.
Furthermore, all parts of the body are formed from the results of differentiation and specialization of the three embryonic layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). This ectoderm subsequently develops into skin cells and nervous system.
This mesoderm develops into cells from organs between the ectoderm and endoderm, for example blood vessels, muscles, reproductive organs, bones, and kidneys. Furthermore, this endoderm develops into cells in the respiratory, digestive, and glands that make up the respiratory and digestive systems.
Each layer of this embryo forms several tissues. Primary tissue contained in the body of many celled animals, consists of four types. The primary tissue types are binding tissue, epithelial tissue, nerve tissue, and muscle tissue.
Epithelial tissue is tissue that is at the edges of an organ. This epithelial tissue develops from the layers of the mesoderm embryo, ectoderm, and endoderm. This epithelial tissue has functions for filtration, diffusion, secretion, protection, lubrication, absorption, deformation, movement, storage, and synthesis.
This binding network develops from the mesoderm layer. Then, forming a mesenchyme or embryonal connective tissue that differentiates and specializes in forming an adult binding network.
The binding network has a function as a binder to one network with another network, reinforcement, support, lime, fat storage, immunity, and transportation. Furthermore, muscle tissue is a network that has the task to make movements in the body of living things.
This muscle tissue develops from the mesoderm layer. Muscle tissue is further divided into three types of muscle tissue, namely smooth muscle, heart muscle and striated muscle.
The neural network has a duty to receive and deliver stimuli or impulses. This neural network develops from the mesoderm layer. The neural network consists of neurons and neuroglia. Furthermore, based on its function, neurons are divided into motor neurons, sensory neurons, and connector neurons.
The collection of several tissues then collaborates and specializes in forming organs. Epithelial tissue lining the skin or body surface. Solid connective tissue is composed of solid and strong collagen fibers such as those in muscles and ligaments.
Where, hard bone tissue is formed from cells that have a hard extravascular matrix. Meanwhile, cartilage tissue is formed from cells that have a soft extracellular matrix. Then, this muscle tissue is formed from fibers that are able to contract in the framework of the body’s movement processes.
Furthermore, nerve tissue contains nerve cells that can respond to stimuli obtained from outside. Blood as a supporting tissue composed of cells with liquid matrix.