The method of “attract and destroy”, known in English literature as attract and. kill, is one of the methods of using pheromones, which increases the safety of insecticides, the success of which is achieved by creating a kind of “poisoned bait” both in special formulations and in insecticidal-pheromone traps, as well as concentrating the pest in separate areas, followed by local chemical treatments.
In contrast to the disorientation method, the use of the “attract and destroy” method allows you to remove males from the population, use less synthetic pheromone and can be used in small areas. The drugs used are available in the form of paste, plates, bags, special hollow fibers, etc. (Fig. 30). They contain pheromone to attract male pests and an insecticide to kill them. Preparations are applied to plants manually or using specially designed devices. The application of this method results in the removal of a significant number of males from the population, which leads to breach of breeding. The method is used against harmful representatives of the order Lepidoptera (codling moth and leafworms), coleoptera, diptera (fruit flies) and some others.
Fig. 30. Formulations for pest control using the “attract and destroy” method (orig.)
The use of pheromone-insecticidal compositions of domestic production against the apple codling moth for three years made it possible to effectively suppress the number of this pest and maintain fruit damage below the economic threshold of harmfulness (EPV) (Table 7).
Pest control can also be carried out by auto sterilization. This method is based on the same principle as “attract and destroy”, however, the contact insecticide is replaced by a substance that can sterilize males.
The effectiveness of the use of insecticidal-pheromone compositions for the protection of fruit stands from the codling moth *
|Option||Year||The number of captured males, specimens, per control trap||Damage to the fruits of the harvest,%|
|Control (without the use of protective measures)||2006||19,0±1,73||7,4±1,02||3,2±1,24|
* Moscow region, 2006-2008
Autoconfusion is one of the newest methods of using pheromones to protect plants from pests. To combat harmful insects, this method uses special dispensers that look like a pheromone trap body. However, instead of the glue liner and the rubber dispenser, in this case there is a tray with special electrostatic powder containing pheromone (Fig. 31). The males attracted by the pheromone sit on the tray and then fly away, taking away the powder with the pheromone on the body. Since this powder contains the female sexual pheromone, the male becomes its source, thus distracting other males from the females. At the same time, the effect of autoconfusion is observed, i.e., this male is not able to detect the female, since he himself is a source of pheromone.
The consumption of dispensers is 25-30 pcs / ha; they are placed twice a season – in the spring and in the middle of summer. The advantage of this method over others is the amount of pheromone used in dispensers – the consumption of synthetic pheromone is about 100 mg / ha, which is hundreds of times less than with the disorientation method.