Among the five senses, vision is considered by many to be the most important. However, few people give their eyes the care they deserve. Cataracts, glaucoma, astigmatism, strabismus, retinal detachment, sty and conjunctivitis are just a few examples of eye diseases that can affect the quality of your vision.
The best way to avoid all the diseases mentioned above is to take care of your eye health. Thus, even those who do not wear glasses should visit the ophthalmologist periodically. This is the best way to protect your eyes from any illness.
In this text, we will talk about the causes, symptoms and treatments of five most common eye diseases. Do you want to know more about this subject? Then read on!
This is certainly one of the most common eye diseases – about 20% of people with nearsightedness or farsightedness also have astigmatism. This disease happens when there is a malformation in the curvature of the cornea. With this, the image that was supposed to be formed in only one point of the retina ends up forming in several different regions, which leaves the vision distorted.
Astigmatism can happen naturally and be present since the individual’s birth, but it can also be the result of some eye injury, illness or scarring after surgery. One factor that aggravates the degree of astigmatism is to scratch the eyes hard, this ends up deforming the cornea even more.
There are some treatments for this disease, it all depends on the degree of the individual. Some people manage to correct the problem with the use of glasses or contact lenses, in other cases it is necessary to perform refractive surgery.
Cataract is a disease that mainly affects elderly patients over 70 years old – approximately 60% of elderly people over 80 years old suffer from cataracts, with only 10% of people under 65 years old having this disease.
The disease is characterized by the loss of the transparency of the lens, the membrane that lines the eyes gradually becomes more opaque and whitish. Usually, the disease affects one eye at a time, but without treatment, the condition progresses until the vision in both eyes is so blurred that it can cause blindness.
In addition to being related to aging, cataracts also appear in diabetic people who do not take care of their blood glucose levels. It can also be related to congenital, hereditary causes or be the result of some trauma suffered.
Unfortunately, the only treatment for the disease is surgical intervention. Through surgery, the lens will be replaced by an intraocular lens that will allow vision to recover.
Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the connective membrane, responsible for covering the inner part of the eyes and eyelids. The disease can be infectious (bacterial or viral) or allergic. There are cases where conjunctivitis affects only one eye, but it can also happen that both eyes become inflamed at the same time.
This disease, unlike cataracts, for example, has no population at risk. Anyone, and of any age, can contract it. However, conjunctivitis can occur more easily and frequently in people who deal with products that cause eye irritation, such as acidic and caustic materials.
Some symptoms of conjunctivitis are: discharge, redness, swelling of the eyelids, a feeling of sand in the eyes and watery eyes. The case of allergic conjunctivitis is not contagious but it causes a lot of discomfort. Viral and bacterial types are highly contagious, as the patient usually wipes his eyes with his hands.
Here, it is worth remembering that, in cases of viral infection, the body heals itself, as in a common flu. However, to reduce the discomfort caused by the symptoms, the doctor may prescribe the use of saline or lubricating eye drops. When conjunctivitis is bacterial, the doctor may also come in with antibiotics to fight the disease faster.
By that name you may not recognize this disease, but squint people are popularly called “cross-eyed.” The person with strabismus suffers from lack of alignment or parallelism of the eyes, one of them may be more inward than the other, or more outward, there may even be a vertical difference between them.
Strabismus can be constant or intermittent, that is, there are cases in which the eyes are misaligned only at certain times and other cases in which the eyes are often crossed. The strab person usually suffers from stiff necks, headaches and, if he does not treat the problem, he may even lose part of his vision.
The sooner the problem is treated, the easier it will be to align the eyes, so parents should be alert to any signs of strabismus in their children. In milder cases or early in the disease, the problem can be treated with glasses. However, more serious situations can only be corrected with surgery.
- Stye or hordeolus
The sty is one of the most popular eye diseases. It happens when a gland in the eyelids becomes clogged and therefore ends up inflaming. The sty also occurs when this gland is infected by some bacteria – and this is a contagious case.
When the sty occurs in the external glands of the eye, the disease is called the hordeolus. In situations where the internal glands are affected, we call it chalazion – which is not infectious and causes milder symptoms.
The person with a sty may feel small nodules in the eyelid region, these nodules usually become red and cause pain. This is a very common disease especially in people who suffer from chronic inflammation of the eyelids (blepharitis).
In most cases, the stye dries on its own and disappears in a few days. In more severe cases, it is recommended that the patient apply hot compresses to facilitate drainage of secretion through the gland orifice and the use of antibiotic ointments.
The best way to ensure the health of your eyes is to consult your ophthalmologist periodically. Another practice that can make all the difference is to avoid bringing your hands to your eyes, after all, our hands are always dirty and the eyes are very sensitive parts. If you experience any strange symptoms, see your doctor as soon as possible! Preserve your most important sense.