When learning about light, it is also important for us to learn tools that also work on the principle of light. Tools that work by utilizing the principle of light are commonly referred to as optical devices. There are many types of optical devices, such as the human eye, loop, microscope and others.
This time, we will discuss more about just one optical device, the microscope. The following is presented about what the understanding of the microscope , the function of the microscope and also the parts of the microscope that need to be known.
Definition of Microscope
Understanding the microscope can be understood as an optical device that is useful for tools to see and observe objects that are so small that they cannot be seen with only the naked eye. So, a simple microscope is a tool to see objects that are very small, or micro.
The word microscope itself comes from the Latin word “micro” which means small and the word “scopein” which means to see. So, a microscope is interpreted as a tool to see small objects. Small objects are seen by enlarging the size of the object’s shadow to many times the actual size.
With a microscope, the shadow of an object can be enlarged up to 40 times, 100 times, even up to 1000 times. This higher magnification can be increased even more as technology is also increasingly developing.
In fact, an electron microscope has been found quite sophisticated at this time. Electron microscopes have the extraordinary ability to increase the size of objects, namely on a scale of up to 1,000,000 times the size of the actual object.
The inventor of the microscope is Anthony Van Leewenhoek. The discovery of the microscope is very helpful for researchers and scientists to be able to observe microscopic objects. In particular, there is also a branch of science which studies microscopic objects which are carried out using a microscope. This branch of science is the science of microscopy.
It has been mentioned that the presence of this microscope is very helpful for researchers and scientists because the function of the microscope is indeed very large. The main function of the microscope is to see and observe objects which have a very small size that cannot be seen using only the naked eye.
Several types of microscopes are also made so that they can observe objects by producing more detailed shadows. However, basically the function of the microscope still has its main function to observe small objects.
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To be able to carry out its role in enlarging the shadows of small objects, a microscope is made with various parts. The parts of this microscope we need to know so that we can know how the microscope can function and be used.
In general, the microscope is divided into two groups, namely the optical part and the non-optical or mechanical part.
Microscope Optical Parts
In the optical microscope, it consists of ocular lenses, objective lenses, condensers, diaphragms, and mirrors. The following statement.
- Objective lens, is a lens that is close to the object being observed. Microscopically, there are generally 3 objective lenses, with the ability to magnify 10, 40, or 100 times. To use this objective lens, the observer must first apply emersion oil to the object. The function of emersion oil is as a lubricant and to clarify the shadow of objects. This oil is needed because when it is magnified 100 times, the location of the lens and the object being observed are very close, sometimes even touching.
- Condenser, is the part of a microscope that can be rotated, either up or down. The function of the condenser is to collect the light reflected by the mirror and focus it on the object.
- Diaphragm, is the part whose function is to regulate the amount of light entering and regarding the preparations or observed objects.
- Mirror, is the part that functions to receive and direct the light received by the microscope. The mirror directs the light by reflecting the light it gets.
Mechanical (Non-Optical) Microscope Parts
- Revolver, is the part whose function is to adjust the magnification of the objective lens desired by the observer.
- Microscope Tubes, are parts whose function is to connect the objective lens and the ocular lens on the microscope.
- Microscope Arm, is the part that functions as an observer when holding a microscope.
- Object table, is the part whose function is to place objects to be observed. On this table there are also object clamps that are useful for keeping objects in the desired place.
- Macrometer(rough player), is the part whose function is to raise or lower the tube quickly, so that the observer can adjust the clarity of the image obtained.
- Micrometer(smooth player), is the part whose function is to raise or lower the tube slowly and is useful for making arrangements to get clarity of the desired object image.
- Foot Microscope, is the part of the microscope that functions as a buffer to keep the microscope in the desired place. The microscope foot is also useful as a place to hold the microscope if the microscope is to be moved.
Based on the energy source utilized, the microscope is divided into two types, namely the light microscope and the electron microscope. The following explanation.
1. Light Microscope
As the name implies, a light microscope is a type of microscope that can be used by utilizing light as its energy source. In a light microscope, a lens whose role is to focus the light on the object to be observed is used. Light that is used as a source of energy can come from sunlight or from light.
The microscope that was first discovered is this type of light microscope. The light microscope is also the most common type of microscope that is used in schools in Indonesia as a learning tool.
Light microscopes generally have three objective lenses with each of them, capable of performing weak magnifications (4 or 10 times), medium magnifications (40 times) and strong magnifications (100 times). In addition, there are also ocular lenses with magnification of 10 times. Armed with these lenses, light microscopes generally have a maximum magnification of 1000 times the actual size.
There are also types of light microscopes that only have one ocular or monocular lens and which only have two ocular or binocular lenses or stetero microscopes. Generally, monocular microscopes can only see the length and width of objects. While binocular microscopes can see objects in 3 dimensions, namely the length, width and height of the object.
2. Electron Microscope
Electron Microscopes can be said to be the invention of new microscopes that are more sophisticated or modern. This type of microscope utilizes electrons as its energy source. Electron Microscopes use magnets instead of lenses. It is this electron that is useful for concentrating the energy source towards the object being observed.
By using an electron microscope, the shadow of the object being observed can be enlarged to one million times the size of the actual object. In fact, the ability to enlarge the shadow of this object can still continue to develop along with the advancement of technology found.
There are also two types of electron microscopes, namely the Electron Transmission Microscope (TEM) and the Scanning Electron Microscope. The TEM microscope works by blowing electrons into the object, so that the shadow image of the object is visible on the screen. While the Scanning Electron Microscope works by displaying a three-dimensional picture of the object. This microscope is able to provide an overview of the surface, tissue, and structure of the observed object