In general, the term publishing often refers to the production and distribution of information in printed form and intended to be accessible to the public. The person or individual who leads the organization or publishing company is called a publisher. Sometimes, an author or writer has his own publishing organization or company, in the sense that they not only regulate and develop the contents of the publication but also provide media to deliver and present the contents of the publication.
According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, publishing is defined as the process, method, or act of publishing. Publishing is also interpreted as the appearance or affairs (work and so on) publishing (books and so on).
Meanwhile, according to Hasan Pambudi (1981), what is meant by publishing is the activity of publishing to the public, explaining to the general public the words and images that have been created by creative souls, then edited by the editors to be further duplicated by the printing department.
Along with the development of communication and information technology such as the internet as a communication medium , the scope of publishing has become even broader. Not only limited to publishing in print but has evolved into electronic form. Now, you can easily find books, newspapers or magazines published online, such as through news portals, blogs, and so on.
Type of Issuance
The types of publishing can be grouped into five types namely book publishing, periodical publishing, computer software publishing, audio visual recording publishing, and other publishing. Here is a brief review.
- Book Publishing
The book is the beginning of the history of modern media. According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, a book or book is interpreted as a sheet of paper that is bound, contains writing or is blank. Understanding the book quoted from the page Wikipedia.com, the book is a collection of paper or other material that is bound together at one end that contains writing or pictures, or patches.
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Whereas each side of a sheet of paper in a book is called a page. Generally, books are registered and documented using the International Standard Book Number (ISBN).
Therefore, what is meant by book publishing is a publication that publishes information or pictures in book form. Book publishing itself can be divided into two types, namely general book publishing and book directory publishing.
- Public bookpublishing is a type of book with public themes such as religion and philosophy, language, children’s and teenage books, school books, textbooks, hobbies and interests, law, medicine, women, computers, management and business, agriculture, psychology and education, references and dictionaries, literature and novels, social politics, tourism and maps.
- Directory bookpublishing is a type of book publishing that produces various types of directories such as telephone books or mailing lists. As with books in general, now directory books are also published online.
Along with the history of the development of communication and information technology , books can now be published in electronic form, known as e-books or electronic books . In its use, e-books rely on modern communication devices or media such as desk computers, portable computers, tablet computers, cell phones or others and use certain software to read them.
- Periodical Publishing
Periodical publishing or also called periodical publication is one of the serial publications that is published based on a certain schedule. Usually, periodicals are marked with numbers or numbers that indicate the volume and issues of periodicals.
Volume usually refers to the number of years of publication that have been circulating, while the issue refers to the number of times the relevant media has been published during that year. Regular media registration and documentation is carried out using the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN).
The types of periodical publishing include the following.
One of the mass media according to experts is the newspaper. According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, what is meant by newspapers or newspapers are sheets of paper with news and so on. Referring to the development of communication technology in modern journalism , newspapers are now being presented online.
However, online journalism has its own impact on the traditional newspaper industry. Now, almost everyone turns to the internet to receive or read news online. This is what makes traditional publishing businesses struggle to survive in order to remain competitive and retain their loyal readers. Examples of newspapers are Kompas, Pikiran Rakyat, and Media Indonesia.
Magazines according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary are periodicals whose contents cover a variety of coverage such as journalism, views on actual topics and should be known to readers; and based on the time of publication divided into monthly magazines, semi-monthly, weekly, and so on
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And according to the specialization the contents are divided into news magazines, women’s magazines, youth magazines, sports magazines, literary magazines, certain sciences, and so on. No different from newspapers, magazines are also now presented online. No different from newspapers, magazines are also now presented online. Examples of magazines are Kartini, HAI, Girl, Bobo, and so on.
The Big Indonesian Dictionary defines a tabloid as a small newspaper (half the size of a regular newspaper) which contains a lot of news in a short, concise, and illustrated, easy to read publicly. Tabloids are also interpreted as writing in a concise and concise form (about criticism, exposure, and so on). Sometimes, tabloids are also called sensational newspapers or yellow newspapers. Examples of tabloids are Nova, Ball, Star, and so on.
According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, bulletins are printed media in the form of leaflets or magazines, containing brief newsletters or written statements that are published periodically by an organization or institution for a particular professional group. Bulletins are also interpreted as official express broadcasts about the progress or results of investigations (matches, etc.). Examples of bulletins are World Cup soccer bulletins, weather forecast bulletins, and so on.
- Academic journal
What is meant by academic journals or scientific journals are periodical publications that are published relating to research results from certain academic fields. The function of an academic journal is as a forum or forum for presenting, supervising, and discussing research. Typically, academic journals are reviewed and referenced by colleagues.
The institutions or organizations that publish academic journals include universities, government agencies, scientific institutions, or commercial businesses that focus on specific academic fields. An example of an academic journal is the University of Indonesia Academic Journal.
- Publishing Computer Software
According to the lifewire.com page, what is meant by publishing computer software is a device used by graphic designers and non graphic designers to create visual communications such as brochures, business cards, greeting cards, web pages , posters, and others intended for publishing online.
Examples of publishing computer software include programs such as Adobe InDesign, Microsoft Publisher, QuarkXPress, Serif PagePlus, and Scribus. Some of these programs are used by graphic designers and commercial printing technicians. This type of publishing is also used by office workers, teachers, students, small business owners, and others. The types of software used in this publication are word processing, page layout , graphics, and web publishing .
- Publishing Audio-Visual Records
According to Murphy (1996) what is meant by audiovisual recording is recording in the form of images or sounds including moving and silent media, sound recording, graphic works, mixed media, and related discovery aids and file production.
Thus, what is meant by publishing audio visual recordings is recorded images or sounds that are created, stored, published, and can be seen as motion or still image films, sound and video recordings, and other graphic works, microfilm, microfiche, and so forth.
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- Other Issuance
Other publications include the publication of creative works in the form of photographs, engraving and postcards, forms, posters, reproduction of artwork, and advertising materials and other printed materials for commercial purposes, or other publications with content or content development contained in the media it publishes, publishes and distributes information for public consumption.
As with communication, besides the types of publishing there are also some functions. The main functions of publishing are publication, reproduction, and dissemination according to Rambat et al (2015) as follows.
- Publicationis the main key in building the image of a work so that it can be appreciated by the public well and ultimately increase the economic value of the work produced. The publication process is closely related to quality control where before publication, a work must go through processes such as assessment or review , content editing, language editing, design processing , and conversion of the appropriate format. The aim is that the published content is suitable for public consumption and has economic value.
- Reproductionis the next publishing function which is also one of the functions of communication media . Content storage containers produced by the publication will be packaged in the media. The media in question are print media, electronic media, and online media, or combinations such as the use of multimedia and social media features as well as other media potentials that follow technological developments.
- Disseminationis one of the functions of communication . The function of dissemination in publishing refers to how the content or contents of the publication are disseminated to the wider community.
Benefits of Learning the Types of Publishing and Their Functions
Studying the types of publishing and their functions can provide several benefits, including the following.
- We can know and understand the meaning of publishing.
- We can know and understand the types of publishing.
- We can know and understand the function of publishing.
Thus a brief review of the types of publications and their functions. Hopefully it can broaden our horizons and knowledge about publishing related to the types of publishing and their functions.