Tuberculosis (also known as tuberculosis or consumption) most commonly affects the lungs, although it can also affect other parts of the body, such as the spine, brain, kidneys, lymph nodes and even bones. The symptoms of the disease include weight loss, fatigue, fever and feelings of general malaise and weakness all around. Depending on which part of the body is infected, there may be persistent cough, pain in the chest area and coughing up blood in severe cases when the disease is in the lungs. In most cases, patients have latent TB infections, in which the bacteria are inactive and still alive, and these people may not show any symptoms and are not diagnosed or diagnosed by other means.
As an airborne disease, tuberculosis is spread by bacteria that travel through the air. That is to say, the disease is caused by Myobacterium tuberculosis. There are two different phases of tuberculosis, including tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis. Tuberculosis infection is the place where the immune system is unable to kill all tuberculosis bacteria, which remain inactive and become a latent tuberculosis infection. Tuberculosis disease, on the other hand, occurs when the immune system is unable to fight tuberculosis bacteria. Tuberculosis disease is contagious and can be transferred between people through coughing, sneezing or, very rarely, simply talking to each other in the immediate vicinity. However, it should be noted that, contrary to popular belief, tuberculosis does not spread through skin contact, sharing food and water or kissing.
Tuberculosis is considered among the best killers of infectious diseases worldwide, killing around 2 million people every year. Despite this, with the development of more accurate treatments and diagnoses, the mortality rate decreased by almost half compared to 1990, which was death in one in seven people infected in America and Europe. Tuberculosis disease can spread from one part of the infected body to another. Depending on the site of infection, TB may kill causing organ failure or respiratory failure. Nevertheless, most people exposed to TB bacteria will not develop tuberculosis disease and those with latent tuberculosis infections will not be sick or contagious to others.
Over 90% of tuberculosis-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Although tuberculosis can affect people of all genders and of all ages, it is above all one of the leading causes of death for women aged 15 to 44. Tuberculosis disease is particularly lethal for people with compromised immune systems , like patients with HIV / AIDS, those with recent organ transplants, people with certain cancers and diabetics. Heavy smokers, people recently infected with tuberculosis (within 2 years), children younger than 5 years infected with tuberculosis and underweight people are also at a higher risk of tuberculosis disease. In high-income countries, those most at risk include the poor, the homeless, people involved in long-term care or correctional facilities and those who work regularly with one of the aforementioned subjects. According to the World Health Organization, the country with the highest relative tuberculosis incidence is Swaziland, while the highest number of total nominal tuberculosis incidences is found in India. Tuberculosis-related deaths are most commonly seen in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
Fortunately, tuberculosis disease can be prevented, treated and treated. Preventive treatments may be prescribed to people with tuberculosis infections to prevent their immune system from weakening and the infection becoming active, while those with tuberculosis disease may be prescribed more antibiotics, which are often required for up to a year to pass. the condition. It is essential that patients closely follow their medical regiment and finish all prescribed drugs, because if they fail to take the drugs correctly or stop taking them, TB bacteria may not be completely eliminated and may become stronger and even more resistant to drugs. If this occurs, a new series of more powerful drugs will have to be prescribed.