Triangulation (Methodology)

The Triangulation is one of the most widely used techniques for processing data in qualitative research, as it contributes to raising the objectivity of the analysis of data and gain greater credibility on the facts.

What is to be delimited is not simply the occasional occurrence of something, but the traces of the social or cultural existence of something (whose significance we do not yet know) from its recurrence, that is, to differentiate or distinguish the chance of the evidence .

Triangulation Principles

Hence the need to adhere to the following principles:

  1. Intrasubjectivity principle(related to reliability): This means that repeated appreciation or observation of the same answer by the same researcher must produce the same results).
  2. Principle of intersubjectivity: Which means that the repeated appreciation or observation of the same answer by different investigators must produce (more or less) the same data.
  3. Principle of validity: Which means that data must be obtained in such a way that legitimate inference can be made from the manifest level to the latent level.
  4. Principle of consistency and consistency:
  • Repeat oriented study and / or observation acts to appreciate the results.
  • Repetition of acts of appreciation by other people who observe the same phenomenon.
  • Recurrence of studies of other materials (previous studies) linked to the referred object.

In essence, it consists of collecting data from different angles to compare and contrast them with each other, that is, perform a cross check between different data sources:

  • Between people;
  • Between instruments;
  • Between documents;
  • Between theories;
  • Between methods;
  • Combination of them.

Triangulation Types

Therefore, different types of triangulation can be used, examples of which are:

  • Triangulation of sourcesor collected information from various sources: from teachers, students, parents, materials, documents, etc .;
  • Triangulation of evaluatorsor studies by different subjects (researchers, observers, actors, etc.);
  • Methodological triangulation(different methods and techniques, or use of various methodological strategies (quantitative or qualitative).
  • Temporal triangulation; what supposes the study in different moments and circumstances.
  • Spatial triangulation; or carrying out the study in different regions, neighborhoods, cultures or places in the center (classroom, patio, library).
  • ‘ Theoretical triangulation.


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