Say: “Come, I will recite what your Lord has forbidden you: associate nothing with Him. And be kind to your parents. And do not kill your children, for fear of destitution: We give you sustenance, and them. And do not approach obscenities, apparent and latent. And do not kill the soul, which Allah has forbidden to kill, except with just reason. This is what He recommends for you to reason. “And do not approach the riches of the orphan, except in the best way, until he reaches his full strength. And complete the measurement and weight with equity. We do not impose on any soul but what is of its capacity. And when you speak, be righteous, even if you are a relative. And be faithful to Allah’s covenant. This is what He recommends for you to meditate on. “And, of course, this is My straight path: then, follow it and do not follow the other paths, for they would separate you from His way. This is what He recommends for you to be godly. ” [Holy Quran 6: 151-153]
In these verses, we have ten commandments of Islam. ‘Ubadah ibn Samit – may Allah be satisfied with him – said that Prophet Muhammad (May peace and blessings be upon him) used to get the Mecca people to commit to Islam (bay’ah) by reciting these verses. Some scholars call them “al-Din al-Jami” (the Teachings of Universal and Comprehensive Religion). These commandments include belief, worship, ethics and laws regarding social, economic and civic issues. Similar teachings can also be found in the Bible (Exodus 20: 2-17; Deuteronomy 5: 6-21) and for Jews and Christians these are known as the Ten Commandments. They are generally summarized as follows:
- You will not take any god other than God.
- You will not make a sculpture image for yourself.
- You will not take the name of God in vain.
- You will not break (the holiness) of the Sabbath.
- You will not dishonor your parents.
- You will not kill.
- Thou shalt not commit adultery
- You will not steal.
- You will not perish.
- You will not covet.
In the Qur’an, these commandments are given in three verses. Each verse has a very appropriate ending. In the first verse, there are five commands that end with the statement “so that you can understand”. In the second verse, there are four commands that end with the declaration, so that you can remember. In the third verse, there is a command that ends with the statement that you can become aware of God. The obvious meaning is that when you use your reason, remember your responsibilities and follow the Divine Path, then you can acquire the just and godly character, Taqwa. This must be the ultimate goal of your faith. Let’s look at these three sets of commands:
So He instructed you to use your reason:
- DO NOT ASSOCIATE ANYTHING TO HIM
There is only one God. To believe that there is someone else who shares Divinity with Allah is Shirk, blasphemy and a great sin. Belief in Tawhid or the Oneness of Allah is the true, most logical and reasonable principle. All other beliefs in the duality or multiplicity of gods have no basis in truth, reason or reality.
- BE KIND WITH YOUR PARENTS
Ihsan towards parents means doing all the best for them. This includes respect, honor, kindness and love. Reason requires parents to be honored and grateful for all the sacrifices they make for their children. Children who neglect or ignore their parents’ rights are deprived of their own reason and decency.
- DO NOT KILL YOUR CHILDREN BECAUSE OF FEAR OF POVERTY
Just as parents have rights, so children have rights. Even babies and the unborn have rights. They should not be killed for any reason, even if it is out of fear of poverty. Allah provides for everyone. Another reason rule is that all children must be protected. Just as children must be honored, they must be protected.
- DO NOT DELIVER TO SHAMEFUL ACTS, BE OPENLY OR SECRETLY
It is not right to do shameful and indecent acts in public, but it is also wrong to do them in private. The most sensible thing is that indecency should be avoided everywhere. Furthermore, as there are open sins, there are hidden sins. Open sins are like theft, murder, fornication, bribery, forgery, mischief, etc .; but the secret sins are hypocrisy, lack of faith, hatred, greed, suspicion, etc. All sins must be avoided.
- DO NOT KILL ANY PERSON TO WHOM GOD HAS FORBIDDEN, EXCEPT THROUGH THE DUE LEGAL PROCESS
All murder is prohibited unless it is under due process of law and justice. When people lose their reason, they start killing according to their hatred or anger. They exceed the limits of justice. Murderers are freed while innocent people are punished or hundreds are forced to suffer because of the murder of one or a few. All of these acts are against the dictates of reason and common sense.
So He instructs you to remember:
- PROTECT THE PROPERTY OF ORPHANS
This means protecting the rights of the weak. People remember the rights of the strong, but the weak forget.
- GRANT COMPLETE MEASURE AND WEIGHT IN ALL JUSTICE
One must always be attentive to doing business honestly. People forget that honesty must be the policy in all businesses.
- WHENEVER YOU SPEAK, BE FAIR, EVEN IF YOU REFER TO A NEARBY RELATIVE
People tend to side with their close relatives; they forget that they have to be fair to everyone.
- FULFILL YOUR PROMISES
All promises must be kept, but especially those that are made in the name of God. Don’t forget your promises.
So He instructed you so that you can achieve godliness:
- THIS IS MY STRAIGHT WAY FOLLOWED! AND DO NOT FOLLOW OTHER PATHS THAT MAKE YOU DEVIATE YOUR PATH