The main structure of the soil is made up of clay particles of different sizes and qualities. The size of these particles may differ from researchers to country. At present, the international method for measuring soil particle size and the United States method are in place. Here are the measurements of soil particles determined by these two methods. Soil particles are 3 types in the United States system. Of these, there are 5 types of sand particles, 3 types of poly particles and 5 types of clay particles. There are 2 types of sand particles, 3 types of poly particles and 5 types of clay particles.
(3) Sand particles
In the international system, the sand particles are divided into 2 parts. Such as coarse sand particles and fine sand particles. In the international system, gross sand is about 3 times larger than fine sand. According to the method developed by the United States Department of Agriculture, a single particle of 5.12 to 2.5 millimeters in diameter is subdivided into four types, namely, very fine, porous, coarse sand, medium sand, fine sand and very fine sand. In the United States, very fine sand particles are greater than very fine sand.
Name and size of soil particles
The name of the soil particle
Diameter ( millimeters)
United States Procedure (USDA)
|Very gross sand particles||2 . 00 – 0 . 26||2 . 00 – 1 . 2|
|Gross sand particles||০ . 20 – 1 . 12||১ . 00 – 0 . 2|
|Medium sand particles||–||০ . 1 – 2 . 26|
|Fine sand particles||০ . 20 – 1 . 12||০ . 20 – 1 . 2|
|Very fine sand particles||–||০ . 1 – 2 . 2|
|Poly particles||০ . 02 – 0 . 12||০ . 05 – 0 . 12|
|Clay particles||< ০ . 12||< ০ . 12|
Influence of sand particles on soil fertility and other qualities
1. Help the plant to be physically contained.
2. Creates the main structure of the soil.
3. The sand increases the air circulation in the soil.
4. Regulates soil heat.
5. Land farming determines ease.
6. Land erosion is reduced on sandy soil.
7. Soil is not formed on the ground, the firmness is low.
8. Sand particles increase water infiltration and traction rate.
9. Increases the carrying capacity of the soil.
Sand particles decompose spontaneously and are chemically unchanged. So there is little evidence of sand particles in the food supply of the plant.
(2) Poly particles
are the size of the poly between the sand particles and the clay particles in the soil particles. According to the method of the United States, the diameter of the poly particles is 0.52-5.5 mm, but the amount of poly in the United States method and the amount of sand will be lower than the international method. The fertility of the soil is influenced by the poly particles between the sand particles and the clay particles. Pollen particles take part in the supply of nutrients, starting from the formation of polycrystalline structures. Poly’s role in other chemical properties is moderate compared to that of sand and clay particles. Particles of all sizes are present on any soil in the world. If there is a shortage of any of these particles, good agricultural land is not produced at that place. However, the physical properties and fertility of the soil depend largely on the quantity of sand particles.
(3) Clay particles are
0.52 mm in accordance with international methods and the United States Department of Agriculture. Soil particles with low diameter are considered as clay particles. An electron microscope is required to see the shape of a clay particle. Although very fine in size, the importance of clay particles is very important in the fertility of the soil. As-
- Supply of nutrients: The plant participates directly in the supply of nutrients. Easily disposable mite particles provide a lot of potassium in the plant.
- Material Absorption: Positive ion contributes to the absorption of the material as an absorber.
- Soil Properties: Significantly influences all chemical properties of soil.
- Buffer capacity: Increases the buffer capacity of the soil.
- Ion exchange mechanism: The soil regulates the ion exchange process.
- Water Capacity: Increases the water holding capacity of the soil.
- Soil – Roots Relationship: Increases the intimacy between soil particles and roots.
- Nutrition Conservation: The plant acts as a food preservative. 9. Soil Elegance: Increases soil elegance and propagation.
- Surface area of the soil particles: Increases the total surface area of the soil particles.
- Physical-Radical Properties: Exerts an active influence on the physicochemical properties of soil.
- Clay Addition: By adding clay, the nutrient content of the plant is reduced.
- Soil Development: Helps in soil development.
- Colloid qualities: Improves the colloid qualities of the soil.
Compared to the qualitative difference between soil sand particles and poly particles, the type of soil particles is very different. The soil contains hundreds of different types of clay particles.
Particle size analysis
is called particle size analysis or technical analysis, the process of determining what size soil particles are in a soil sample or mineral fraction. Generally, the hydrometer method and the pipette method are used to determine the amount of sand particles, poly particles and sludge particles expressed in percent weight.