Soil is one part of the earth’s layer or lithosphere. Soil comes from rocks that have experienced weathering and various certain stages. The process of soil formation goes through several stages, beginning with the weathering process which continues until the soil parent material can be turned into soil.
There are many stages that occur until the soil can really be formed. In detail, there are ten soil formation processes, which include: 1. Leaching 2. Acidification 3. Clay eluviation 4. Podsolization 5. Decilication 6. Reduction 7. Salinization 8. Alkalization 9. Erosion 10. Deposition (deposition).
However, the process of soil formation in general can be divided into four major stages, namely: (1) rock weathering process, (2) softening of structures, (3) growth of pioneer plants, and (4) fertilization processes.
Rock Weathering Process
The earliest stage is a change or rock weathering process, which can occur physically or chemically. Rocks are referred to as soil parent material. These rocks or parent materials go through a series of physical processes, in the form of an increase or decrease in temperature, freezing, drying, water flow or wind.
Gradually, this parent material also experiences rock weathering in chemical and / or biological processes. This soil holding material undergoes changes caused by the addition, reduction or translocation of materials. The result is the formation of a vertical cross section of the soil with a unique morphology.
At this stage, the soil experiences a soil profile development. The rock in the hold is softened so that it changes the composition. These weathered rocks still cannot be called soil, but rather soil material. Called soil material because this material still shows the presence of the parent rock structure.
Rock Structure Softening Process
Rocks that have become soil material will experience a softening process. The process of softening soil material is much influenced by water and air. Water and air will enter and seep in between rock crumbs, resulting in soft rock structure.
Water and air also encourage prospective living creatures to get in between the crumbs of rocks so they can start growing on the surface. However, of course only certain organisms are capable of living and developing at this stage, such as microbes and mosses.
The weathering process of this rock structure also occurs in a long period of time. It is estimated by experts, the weathering process of this rock structure can take millions of years.
The growth of pioneer plants
Rock structure that has finished weathering will enter the process of growing pioneer plants. So, the soft rock will be overgrown with various types of pioneer plants.
Pioneer plants can be larger than mosses. The roots of pioneering plants will go into the sidelines in the soft rock. It is the existence of these roots that helps break rock.
The presence of humic acid that flows from the surface of the rock also allows rocks that are on the inside can experience perfect weathering. In this hold, biological weathering will begin the process begins.
Now, the soil has formed and is starting to undergo stages for the process of enrichment of organic materials. Initially, the soil only contained minerals from rock weathering.
Furthermore, the fertilization process will occur due to the weathering of organic materials originating from dead animals and plants on the surface. In this fertilization process, there is also an important role of soil microorganisms.
After going through the fertilization process, perfect soil is formed, which is in the form of soil that we usually see in everyday life. From this soil, we can see various autotrophic plants and animals obtain their food sources in the soil media. .
However, it also needs to be understood that the process of land formation is still ongoing. This happens because there are still factors that influence the formation of land that still exists.
Do you know what soil forming factors are? These factors are: climate, parent material, organisms, time and topography. The full explanation can be read in the soil forming factors .
In addition, types of rock weathering in general can be divided into three forms, namely chemical weathering, physical weathering, and biological weathering. Chemical weathering occurs due to the influence of acid rain which often occurs early in the process of the formation of the earth.
Acid carried by rain is produced from condensation of methane, sulfur, and chloride. This substance is very corrosive so it makes the rocks that are passed chemically eroded. Due to the frequent occurrence of acid rain, the rocks that experienced weathering quite a lot and deep.
Physical weathering occurs because of the influence of climate change and extreme weather. Rock bonds become weathered and break easily due to extreme or drastic temperature changes. In this physical weathering, the chemical structure of the rock does not change and the minerals contained therein remain the same.
Biological weathering usually takes place continuously from the beginning of the process of soil formation, until after the soil is formed and ready to be used as a living medium. Biological weathering is also often referred to as weathering completion of the properties formed in the soil.