Skeleton of the Ram

Skeleton of the Ram . It is the frame of hard consistency that supports and protects the soft tissues of the rams , it is applied in a restrictive way to the bones and cartilage, although the ligaments that join them together could also be included.


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  • 1 Vertebral Column of the Rams
    • 1 sacrum
    • 2 Cervical vertebrae
    • 3 Thoracic vertebrae
    • 4 Lumbar vertebrae
    • 5 Coccygeal Vertebrae
  • 2 Ribs of the Rams
  • 3 Ram’s Sternum
  • 4 Skull of the Rams
  • 5 Thoracic Limb Bones
  • 6 Pelvic Limb Bones
  • 7 Source

Vertebral Column of the Rams

The vertebral formula in rams is considered as C7 T13 L6-7 S4 Co16-18, except in the cervical region, variations in numbers are frequent. In the rams there are twelve thoracic and seven lumbar or one intermediate vertebra of ambiguous character. There are seven lumbar vertebrae with a reduction in the number of the thoracic, in some cases there are fourteen thoracic and five or six lumbar, in some cases the fourth sacral vertebra is kept separate and in others the first coccygeal is joined with the sacrum.


The sacrum ordinarily consists of four segments, the last vertebra may remain separate or experience only partial function. The spines are not fused, except for the fourth when it exists it is floating. The external face is generally smooth and rounded.

Cervical vertebrae

The cervical vertebrae in rams are relatively longer than those of the ox, the atlas mainly defends in that the prominence of the dorsal arch is much less accentuated. The articular cavities are often separated by a central ridge, the wings have a blunt point behind and the spinous process of the axis is not widened from behind. The ventral spines are rudimentary and the arches are separated dorsally by interarchal spaces.

Thoracic vertebrae

They are usually thirteen in number, but there may be fourteen or rarely only twelve. Their bodies are relatively wider and less narrow in the center than those of the ox, and their limbs are not as strongly bent, especially in the last vertebrae of the series. Intervertebral holes are larger in correlation with the absence of holes that are regularly noticed in the ox in the arches of these vertebrae.

Lumbar vertebrae

They are a number of six or seven and only by exception their number is five. In some cases there is an ambiguous vertebra at the junction of the thoracic and lumbar regions. The bodies are more flattened dorsoventrally than those of the ox, with their forelimbs somewhat concave in a transverse direction and their hind limbs almost flat. The transverse processes bend forward, bagging at their extremities.

Coccygeal vertebrae

The number of coccygeal vertebrae ranges from three (in short-tailed rams ) to twenty-four or more. The bodies do not present hemal processes on the ventral side, and the processes are long and thin and project backwards.

Rams Ribs

The number of ribs is generally thirteen pairs, but the presence of fourteen is not very rare. The thirteenth rib is floating and has cartilage about 3 centimeters long. The thirteenth rib may be more or less rudimentary on one or both sides and may be fused with the corresponding vertebra.

Ram’s Sternum

The sternum generally resembles that of the ox, the number of segments may be reduced to six, and the primitive division into two lateral halves of the penultimate sternebra may persist for a long time. The first segment is cylindrical with widened limbs, the second and third are wide and flat, the last is long and narrow.

Skull of the Rams

The skull has an irregularly hexagonal outline, its greatest width corresponds to the frontal region, between the posterior potions of the orbits. The skull vault is strongly convex, with the highest portion of the curve coinciding with the greatest width and the posterior portion having an inclination of approximately 45 ° in the basal plane. The occipital forms the entire nuchal aspect of the skull, except for a small lateral area occupied by the temporal mastoid portion. The paramastoid process presents grooves on its external face, the basilar portion is wide, the existing tubers at their point of union with the sphenoid are laterally positioned and are wide and short. The cranial cavity corresponds to the external shape of the skull, more exactly than in the ox, it is ovoid and relatively much longer, but its dorsoventral diameter is much shorter. The nasal cavity is relatively narrow and there is no wide hiatus in the nasal lamina of the maxilla.

Thoracic limb bones

The bones of the forearm are long and the radius somewhat curved; its back load is regularly rounded. The body of the ulna is thin especially in its distal half, its fusion with the radius occurs late and is usually very extensive. The carpal bones are long and tuberous, the large metacarpal bone is long and thin; the small lateral metacarpal is often missing or represented by a ridge over the large metacarpal. The phalanges of the main fingers are relatively long and narrow, the third phalanx in particular is flatter on its upper side, so that it forms a prominent dorsal border. The abaxil is compressed transversely and the front axil back. The flexor aspect of the distal sesamoids forms a shallow groove, which is not divided by a ridge.

Pelvic Limb Bones

The gluteal line appears as a ridge that is parallel to the outer edge, the coxal tuberosity is slightly thick, and the sacral tuberosity is pointed; the ridge is concave on the inside and convex on the outside, the body is relatively long and flattened on the sides and the upper ischial spine is low and ranversed. The floor of the pelvic cavity is wide and shallow, the axis of the pelvis slopes down from behind. The body of the femur is slightly curved, the tibia is long and thin.


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