Second cosmic speed

The second cosmic velocity or escape velocity is the minimum velocity that must be communicated to a body so that, without the action of other additional forces, it can overcome the attraction of the Earth and become an artificial satellite of the sun .

This velocity is also called parabolic, because it corresponds to a parabolic path of the body in the Earth’s gravitational field (in the absence of resistance from the atmosphere ).


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The second cosmic velocity is determined by the formula:


  • Vesc is the second cosmic speed.
  • G is the gravitational constant.
  • Mt is the mass of the Earth.
  • r is the distance from the launch point of the body to the center of the Earth.

On the Earth’s Surface Vesc = 11.2 Km / s


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