Root Function – Parts, Types, Structure, Morphology and Anatomy – Lecturer of Education.Com – Root is a part of the plant that first grows, that is when the seeds germinate and will continue to grow through the soil. Root growth takes place rapidly in the root tip area, while growth in the root base region occurs more slowly.
- To strengthen the stem,
- Absorb water and mineral salts,
- Helps absorb oxygen in the air in tobacco plants, and
- Storing food reserves for example in tubers.
A root cape is a root that lives at the tip called Kaliptra which has parenchymal tissue cells which contain flour extracts. The function of Kaliptra is to maintain and maintain its performance system as well as the task of moisturizing the roots so they do not experience friction with soil particles.
Different root cell development areas function. The type of root cell in question is the roots of monocotyledonous plants and dicotyledons as cell division for the subsequent root growth process as the area of root hairs settled.
The root nucleus is the part of the root that is at the center of the root, which is in the middle around the root hump. The root core is divided into two parts, consisting of:
- Functional filter vessels help and facilitate the process of photosynthesis
- Wood vessels that function to spread water and food nutrients to the bones of the leaf
Root hair has a unique character that is irregular but finely structured fibers that are firmly attached to the outer root skin that serves to absorb all the water and mineral salts present in the soil.
Root stems are stems that are located in the middle between the base of the root and root tips that develop and grow branching branches in a small scale.
The root of the root
The youngest part of the root and like a shoot that continues to experience growth and replacement of new roots at a time that has become the stipulation of the root cell.
Also Read: Monocot Plants
Morphology (Outer Structure) Root
Plant roots have a morphological structure that can be seen from the outside such as: root base, root tip, root stem, root branches, and root fibers, root hairs or root hairs, and root caps. Explanation:
- Root Neck or Root Root (Collum), which is the part of the root that connects to the base of the stem,
- Tip Root (Apex radicis), the easiest part of the root, consisting of tissues that can still make growth,
- Root stem (Corpus radicis), the part of the root located between the root neck and the tip.
- Root branches (Radix lateralis), which are the parts of the root that are not directly connected to the base of the stem, but come out of the root of the tree, and each can have another branch,
- Root fibers (Fibrilla radicalis), branches of fine roots and fibrous.
- Root hairs or root feathers (Pilus radicalis), which is the root part which is really only a protrusion of skin cells outside the root length, shaped like a feather or hair, therefore called root hair or root hairs. With the presence of these root hairs the absorption area will be greatly expanded, so that more water and food substances can be sucked up,
- The Root Veil (Calypira), which is the part of the root which is at its tip, consists of tissue that is useful for protecting the young and weak root tips.
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Anatomy (Deep Structure) Root
Anatomically the root consists of four parts, epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and stele.
The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root and consists of only a layer of cells composed of cells that are dense with each other without intercellular space and thin-walled. In conjunction with the process of absorption of water, the epidermis is semipermiable easily penetrated by water. In accordance with its function as a protective tissue underneath, the epidermis thickens so that its structure becomes stronger. On the surface of the epidemic grows the hairs of the roots which are the bulge of the epidermis and serves to absorb water and nutrients as needed.
The cortex is the first layer of skin on the inside of the epidermis consisting of many cells and has a thin cell wall. Inside there are spaces between cells as a place to store air and gas exchange. The tissues found in the cortex include: parenchyma, kolenkim, and sklerenkim.
Endodermis is located inside the cortex. Endodermis is in the form of a layer of cells that are arranged without space between cells, the cell wall experiences thickening of the cork. cork thickening is impermeable to water so water must enter the central cylinder through endodermic cells whose walls are not thickened, called water-continuing cells. Endodermis is a clear separator between cortex and stele.
- Stele (Central Cylinder)
The central cylinder is a layer located in the middle of the root inside the endodermis. Inside there are wooden vessels (xylem) and filter vessels (phloem) which are very important in the process of transporting water and minerals. The xylem transports water and minerals from the soil to the leaves, while the phloem transports the results of photosynthesis to all parts of the plant body that need it.
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Types of Roots
Air Roots or Hanging Roots
Aerial roots or hanging roots (Radix aereus), these roots come out from the top of the soil, hang in the air and grow towards the ground. This root can only help absorb water and gas from the air and often has a special network to hoard water / air called velamen. For example, the roots of the scorpion orchid (Arachnis flosaeris), but when it reaches the soil the part that enters the ground then acts like an ordinary root, absorbs water and nutrients from the soil. ).
Borer Roots or Suction Roots
Borer root or root sucker (Haustorium) is the root found in plants that live as parasites and can be useful for absorbing water and nutrients from its host, for example roots on parasites (Lorantus), wormed limbs (Cuscutha australia R.Br).
Akar Pelekat (Radix adligans)
Root Sticking (Radix adligans), the root that comes out of the climbing plant stem books and is useful for sticking to its support only, for example on pepper (Piper nigrum L.), betel (Piper betle L.).
Currical Root (Cirrhus radicalis)
Root Twist (Cirrhus radicalis), also for climbing but by embracing the support. For example on panili (Vanillia planifolia Andr.)
Akar Nafas (Pneumatophora)
Breath (Pneumatophora), which is the branches of roots that grow perpendicular to the surface so that they appear from the surface of the soil or water where the plant grows. These roots have pores or crevices (Pneumathoda) for the passage of air needed in respiration, for example in bogem (Sonneratia) and firewood (Avicennia).
Tukung roots, which are roots that grow from the bottom of the stem in all directions and as if supporting this stem do not fall. Such roots are found in pandanus trees (Pandanus tectorius Sol.), And mangrove trees (Rhizophora conjugata L.).
The Knee Root is the root of the plant, it is said that the part of the root that grows upward then bends again into the ground to form a picture like a knee of the foot and is useful for breathing purposes, such as a long tree (Bruguiera parvifoia W.et A).
Banir root is root shaped like boards which are placed on a slant to strengthen the establishment of large tall tree trunks such as breadfruit (Artoca communis G. Forst), walnuts (Canarium commune L.), etc.
Root fiber is a number of roots found in the base of large plants and almost the same length. The fibrous root system is formed when the primary root forms as many branches as possible. The root branch that grows does not become big but the root canal again. Then the primary root further shrinks, so that its shape is similar to the fibers.
Fibrous roots are commonly found in monocotyledonous plants or one-leafed plants, such as: palm, bamboo, reeds, bananas, etc. Fibrous roots are also sometimes found in dicotyledonous plants that are bred by means of shells or cuttings.
Tungganga is the main root that comes from an institution that usually grows rainy into the ground. A taproot is generally found in dicotyledonous plants. A taproot functions as a support to the stem so that it does not collapse easily. Every plant that grows from seeds must have a taproot. Especially if the plant is a dicotyledonous plant. as strong as a taproot in dicotyledonous plants.
Taproot is the main root that grows from the seeds, thin upright pierced into the ground where the taproots then spread out branches that spread wide in the soil. With the presence of plant roots, dicotyledon plants which are usually leafy with many branches can survive to stay upright standing in the wind, blowing by the flood, etc. Examples of plants that have taproots include mango trees, guava trees, legumes, eggplants, etc.
Also Read: Definition, Classification and Identification of Plant Taxonomies in Biology
- For plant body supporters,
- Transporting nutrients throughout the plant body,
- Transporting water and minerals from roots to leaves, and photosynthetic foodstuffs to all parts of the body. (means of transportation)
- respiration / breathing apparatus (via lenticels)
- connecting leaves with roots
- as a food reserve (for some plants)
- artificial vegetative propagation tools