Rational purchase is understood as the one that is made after a previous planning and in which all the factors that make up that acquisition have been taken into account, such as the price, the quality, the need for the purchase, the advantages and disadvantages of the same.
That is, a rational purchase becomes a conscious action, an act of thought and organized consumption , with solid arguments that justify the acquisition of a particular good or product. The opposite is the case with impulse buying .
However, this behavior can influence both the advertising that has been previously received through advertisements, as well as the advice offered by family and friends, although the brand and product to be purchased are very clear.
Causes of rational purchase
There are several causes that determine whether a purchase is rational:
- The product and its price:normally, high-priced products are acquired after reflection.
- The economic level of the buyer: when high income is available , there is a greater possibility of acquiring more high-priced products (the same as in the previous situation).
- The advertising: provides information about the applications and advantages of the product and makes it more attractive items.
- Paymentfacilities : alternatives when paying money make the act of purchase less burdensome as they favor decision making.
On the other hand, it is convenient to define the three main situations before which consumers can find themselves in the previous step of the purchase:
- Routine decisions: given to frequently used goods, such as bread.
2. Limited decision problem: when a new product appears, such as a moisturizer.
3. The complex decision : arises in services that will be durable over time, such as a house or a car.
Phases in the purchase decision process
- Recognition of the problem: it is the moment in which the consumer perceives an unmet need, which may well be due to internal motivations – products that satisfy primary needs – or to a series of external stimuli, such as through an advertising campaign.
- Information search: when the consumer has already identified the need, he begins to search and gather information about the products and services that could satisfy it.
- Evaluation of alternatives: process by which the client studies the possible purchase options, detecting what the benefits could be obtained from each of the goods and / or services in question, in order to opt for the one that will best satisfy your needs.
- The decision-making process: once the consumer has evaluated the possible alternatives, it may happen that he acquires the option chosen, either postpone the purchase, or, finally, look for an additional alternative.
- Post-purchase evaluation: when the purchase of the good or service has already taken place, the consumer proceeds to perform an evaluation of it, to see to what degree it has fulfilled its expectations. If the result is positive, the purchase of that good may be repeated, while if the test is not satisfactory, what is known as cognitive dissonance occurs, which is the feeling of post-purchase doubt due to consumer disappointment.