Runa simi ancashino better known as Quechua de Áncash  is one of the languages of the Quechua linguistic family. It is a polysynthetic binding language, characterized by using, outside nouns, personal pronouns and chronospatial markers, at least a hundred suffixes, with high productivity and a strict order of linkage and which play the role of so-called accidents grammatical in the Romance languages. According to the typology of Alfredo Torero de Córdova it belongs to the Waywash or Quechua I subfamily . According to the American linguist Gary Parker, it is part of Quechua B.
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- 1 History
- 2 Geographical spread
- 3 Noun suffix
- 4 chrono-spatial markers
- 5 Questions
- 6 Denial
- 7 References
- 8 Consultable bibliography
- 9 External link
According to experts, an initial focus of the protoquechua may have been Caral, in the northern part of Lima. Possibly Chavín, current Huari province, pre-Inca religious political center, on the road of penetration from the coast, passing through the Black and White mountain ranges of the Andes; located near the Marañón river, it connected with the current Peruvian Amazon: and focus of Quechua. There are several geographical features and places with a Quechua name whose meaning is already impossible to discern.
- Already with the Spanish invasion in 1533, the friars arrived, who for the interest of preaching their doctrine, studied the Quechua of Yungay and from it, it is possible that several lexemes, appear in the Grammar and Lexicon of Domingo de Santo Tomás, in 1560.
- After the cruel murder of the revolutionary José Gabriel Condorcanqui, the use of Quechua was prohibited. However, the staging of the death of Atahualpa emerged, with parliaments in Quechua and Castilian, which are still used to this day in the towns along the Inca Trail.
- It was not until 1905 that the Polyglot Vocabulary appeared, which included the lecture varieties of Áncash, Junín, Cusco, Ayacucho and Aimara.
- In the eastern zone until the thirties it was preached in Quechua, then in Spanish; but the priests trained at the Pomalucay Seminary, spread the Catholic doctrine in regional Quechua, little care.
- At the time of Manuel Prado, Father Jorge A. Lira, who is the author of a dictionary that José Ma. Arguedas knew, was deported to Tucumán. In the government of Manuel A. Odría they prohibited the use of Quechua in schools and colleges. Likewise, the children of the towns kept talking.
- In the 1960s, the importance of Quechua was not discussed at the San Marcos School of Education. As one of the aims of Peruvian education, a forced Castilianization was pursued, whose users would be rural children and adolescents.
- Until the educational reform of Juan Velasco Alvarado and the declaration of Quechua as the official language came. And in 1976 Gary Parker’s Grammar and a dictionary were published, along with Amancio Chávez, from the Quechua Áncash Huailas, publisher Alberto Escobar.
According to the expert Félix Julca Guerrero, the twenty provinces of the Ancash region have inhabitants who have Quechua I as their mother tongue or have learned through EIB, bilingual intercultural education, such would be the case in the province of Pallasca, where until 1928 Speakers of the extinct Culle language existed. In the exhaciendas of the provinces of Santa, Casma and Huarmey and in their capitals there is a large population of Quechua speakers, the result of the migration of peasants from the Andean provinces. There is no equality between the inter-Andean and Eastern provinces, but a high degree of intelligibility. The Quechua of the Sihuas province is the one that has best preserved its characteristics. In the case of the Bolognesi districts, there are several variations in its semantic-syntactic structure.
Let rumi = stone. From it result:
- Rumim= it is stone
- Hitaraykan ismu rumiqa= brittle stone is cast .
- Rumintsik= our stone (includes the interlocutor)
- Rumintsikkuna= our stones (involves the listener)
- Tsaka rumi= stone for bridge, (juxtaposition of two nouns, the second is the phrase nucleus)
- Rumi tsaka= stone-based bridge. (juxtaposition of the same nouns, by the order of these the meaning of the phrase varies)
- Rumitaraq= stone still
- Rumillataraq= just stone.
- The person, through pi: who; piraq ? = Who would it be? curious, whistle ? direct question, for a clear answer.
- The thing, through ima: thing.
- Place, by May: where
- Temporary location, using imay: when
- Amount, through ayka
- Selectivity, using mayqan: which one. All of these can be suffixed as has been done for pi , at the beginning of this section.
Appropriate suffixes are used to ask questions, there is hardly any change in tone of voice, not so much for the question itself, but for its modality. Question suffixes are in italics.
- Tantata kumunanki? —> Do you want bread? Directly ‘Object-verb’.
- Imata soallquqa ashin? —> What is the dog looking for? Pointer-noun-verb
- Imam raqpayqa shamushqa? —> What did he come to? To an interlocutor to answer about a third party
- Ima tash‘Pinqakuy pirqanwan’ Lupirtu munan? —> What will Roberto want with his “wall of infamy”? (probing question)
- Iman taqshinanan? —> What does it say hurts? Intermediate question about another person’s case, in addition to the discussion.
Normal negation of an action or expression
- Manais used . Mana mikuu tsu → not like
- Nuqaqa mikuu taqku ‘→ I don’t eat (emphatic) → I’m going to eat
- So much kanku? (Is there bread? Answers: 1) manam kantsu; 2) kantsu; 3) kantaaku; 4) kantaqku
- Manash mikunqa tsu→ Says he won’t eat.
- Manaraqmikuu tsu → Not as yet.
Giving order or command not to perform, ama is used before the verb.
Love mikuy tsu → Don’t eat.
Love mikuy raqtsu → don’t eat yet
Amanash mikunki tsu → Says you don’t eat anymore
Amaraqshi yarqunki raqtsu Says don’t go out yet.
“Mishpuqa qurpuq llatatsu yaqatsin, aylluykitapis nanatsin” →
“The drug not only affects the user, it also affects your family.”