The modes of production are elements that have marked the whole history. We can say that in life in society, there is always some type of production mode. Although capitalism emerged and consolidated itself as the most important productive system in history, there were many other pre-capitalist modes of production. It is important to emphasize that no mode of production is unique, that is, in a feudal society, for example, there can also be slave labor.
Primitive communal mode of production
It is considered the first mode of production in history. It started from the time when man stopped being a nomad and started to plant and hunt. Such a mode is based on the collective use of the means of production, on family relationships and on cooperatives, similarly to what occurs in many indigenous villages. Thus, in the primitive communal mode of production, there was no private property, since all goods and modes of production were collective.
Slavery mode of production
Unlike the primitive communal, the slavery mode of production was the first to establish the concept of private property. The masters, the minority, owned the slaves. The relations here are not of cooperation, as in the primary communal mode, but of dominance and subjection, since slaves were seen as instruments, as objects, animals, etc.
Another important fact regarding this system is that it was from it – and from the emergence of private property – that the need to create a body to guarantee the well-being, justice, order and maintenance of the rights of landowners arose. lands: the state.
Asian mode of production
Present mainly in ancient civilizations, such as Egypt and Mesopotamia. It was marked by the existence of a strong state that had bureaucratic and efficient mechanisms in order to subject the whole of society to its power. All goods and means of production belonged to the state, which was incarnated by the king, emperor, etc.
Feudal mode of production
Predominant in western Europe between the 5th and 16th centuries, it was marked by the relationship between masters and servants. The masters were the masters of the land and of the servant’s agricultural work, however, serfs were not seen only as objects, as in the slave mode. The servant had the right to cultivate a piece of land provided by the master and live there with his family. In return, he paid taxes, rents, and worked for you. The feudal lords had some independence from the present political system, since they had their own armies.