Postcolonial Literature Eng-608;Study Notes At GCUF Faisalabad

In this article, we will explore the study notes of the ENG-608 course at Government College University, Faisalabad(GCUF). Prepare to discover the rich diversity and thought-provoking narratives that characterize this area of literary exploration.

Table of Contents

Postcolonial Literature Eng-608;Study Notes At GCUF Faisalabad.

Ngugi Wa Thiong’o: Devil on the Cross; Study Notes


In the world of literature, there are authors who leave an indelible mark on the literary landscape with their profound and thought-provoking works. One such author is Ngugi Wa Thiong’o, a Kenyan writer and activist who has become a prominent figure in African literature. His novel, “Devil on the Cross,” is a masterpiece that delves deep into the complexities of post-colonial Kenya. In this article, we will explore the key aspects of Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s “Devil on the Cross” and provide valuable study notes for those who wish to dive into this captivating work.

Ngugi Wa Thiong’o: A Literary Giant

Before diving into “Devil on the Cross,” let’s take a moment to appreciate Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s vast contribution to the literary world. Ngugi, born in 1938 in Kenya, has won numerous awards for his works, including the prestigious Lotus Prize for Literature in 1973. He is known for his commitment to using literature as a tool for social activism and political change, often addressing issues of colonialism, neocolonialism, and the struggles faced by ordinary individuals.

Devil on the Cross: A Synopsis

“Devil on the Cross” is considered one of Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s most celebrated novels. Published in 1980, the novel follows the lives of a diverse group of individuals who find themselves at the crossroads of socio-political upheaval in post-colonial Kenya. The story explores themes of corruption, greed, class struggles, and the power dynamics that exist within a society undergoing rapid transformation.

Delving into the Themes

Corruption and Greed

One of the prominent themes in “Devil on the Cross” is the pervasive corruption and greed that plagues the post-colonial Kenyan society. Ngugi vividly portrays the various forms of corruption, be it through government officials exploiting their positions for personal gain or individuals succumbing to the temptation of material wealth at any cost. Through his characters, he highlights the devastating effects of corruption on ordinary people and the moral degradation that follows.

Class Struggles

Another central theme in the novel is the stark depiction of class struggles within Kenyan society. Ngugi explores the stark contrast between the haves and the have-nots, shedding light on the vast disparities that exist between the elite and the impoverished masses. Through his characters, he exposes the injustices and inequalities that persist in post-colonial Kenya, making a compelling case for social justice and equality.

Power Dynamics

Ngugi Wa Thiong’o masterfully delves into the intricate power dynamics that shape the characters’ lives in “Devil on the Cross.” He explores how power, whether it’s wielded by political figures, wealthy businessmen, or the common man, can manipulate and control individuals. The novel raises questions about the abuse of power and the consequences it has on society as a whole.

Study Notes for “Devil on the Cross”

For those who are studying or analyzing “Devil on the Cross,” here are some valuable study notes to enhance your understanding of the novel:

  1. Take note of the vivid imagery used by Ngugi Wa Thiong’o to bring his characters’ struggles to life. Analyze how he uses descriptive language to evoke emotions and create a powerful narrative.
  2. Pay attention to the symbolism employed throughout the novel. Ngugi strategically uses symbols to represent broader themes and ideas. For example, the titular “devil on the cross” can be seen as a metaphor for the corrupt forces that hold society captive.
  3. Analyze the structure of the novel. Ngugi experiments with form by incorporating elements of traditional African storytelling, songs, and poetry. Explore how these different narrative techniques contribute to the overall message of the novel.
  4. Examine the role of gender in “Devil on the Cross.” Ngugi delves into the complexities of gender dynamics and the subjugation of women within a patriarchal society. Look for instances where gender plays a significant role in shaping characters’ experiences.
  5. Consider the political underpinnings of the novel. Ngugi Wa Thiong’o uses “Devil on the Cross” as a platform to criticize the political landscape of Kenya. The novel offers valuable insights into the socio-political context of post-colonial Africa.


Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s “Devil on the Cross” stands as a testament to his brilliance as a writer and social commentator. Through its compelling narrative and thought-provoking themes, the novel offers a deep insight into post-colonial Kenya and the struggles faced by its people. By studying this profound work, one can gain a greater understanding of the complexities of society and the crucial role literature plays in shedding light on the human condition.

E.M. Foster: A Passage to India Study Notes


E.M. Foster’s novel, “A Passage to India,” is a captivating literary work that explores the complexities of colonialism, cultural differences, and human relationships. As students dive into this thought-provoking novel, it is essential to have comprehensive study notes to enhance their understanding and analysis of the text. In this article, we will provide you with valuable insights, key themes, and essential study notes for E.M. Foster’s masterpiece, “A Passage to India.”

The Significance of “A Passage to India” in E.M. Foster’s Works

  • Foster’s exploration of the British Raj in “A Passage to India” showcases his deep-rooted understanding of the complexities of imperialism.
  • Set in the early 20th century, the novel delves into the clash of cultures, prejudices, and the power dynamics prevalent during the colonial era.
  • “A Passage to India” reveals Foster’s ability to create rich, multi-dimensional characters and craft a narrative that intertwines personal and political conflicts.

Key Themes Explored in “A Passage to India”

Cultural Divide and Misunderstanding

  • The novel highlights the cultural chasm between the British colonizers and the native Indians, leading to miscommunication and misunderstandings.
  • Foster skillfully portrays the clash of Western rationality with Eastern spirituality, emphasizing the difficulty of bridging these opposing ideologies.

Power Dynamics and Imperialism

  • “A Passage to India” serves as a scathing critique of British imperialism, shedding light on the inherent power imbalance and injustice of colonial rule.
  • The characters’ interactions signify the various ways power is exerted, negotiated, and abused within the colonial framework.

Search for Identity and Belonging

  • Foster explores the quest for personal and cultural identity through the lens of characters like Dr. Aziz and Adela Quested.
  • The narrative provides insights into the challenges faced by individuals living in a society riddled with disparity and prejudice.

Study Notes for “A Passage to India”

Character Analysis

  1. Dr. Aziz: As an educated Indian, Dr. Aziz symbolizes the struggle for self-assertion and independence. His journey reflects the plight of many Indians striving to find their place in a colonial society.
  2. Cyril Fielding: Fielding represents the empathetic voice of reason in the novel, bridging the cultural divide between Indians and the British. His character challenges the existing power dynamics and prejudices prevalent during the colonial era.
  3. Mrs. Moore: Mrs. Moore’s spiritual journey and her interactions with Indian characters highlight the potential for understanding and connection beyond cultural boundaries.

Symbolism and Imagery

  • The Marabar Caves: The caves serve as a powerful metaphor for the ambiguity and incomprehensibility of life, highlighting the unfathomable nature of human existence and relationships.
  • The Mosque: The mosque represents a place of solace and spiritual connection for the characters, serving as a counterpoint to the oppressive colonial rule.

Key Quotes and Passages

  • “The real world was unreal to her, and the outer one, peopled with phenomena, impenetrable.”
    • This quote reflects Mrs. Moore’s disillusionment with the superficiality of the world she encounters in India, emphasizing her search for something deeper and more meaningful.
  • “The old lady shepherded them towards the Indian paradise which they had deserved or won.”
    • This passage depicts the condescension and patronizing attitude of the British towards the Indians, highlighting the power dynamics at play.

Analysis of Narrative Techniques

  1. Stream of Consciousness: Foster utilizes this technique to provide readers with insights into characters’ thoughts and emotions, revealing the complexities and inner conflicts they experience.
  2. Multiple Perspectives: By presenting events from various characters’ viewpoints, Foster offers a nuanced understanding of the cultural differences and misunderstandings driving the narrative.


E.M. Foster’s novel, “A Passage to India,” intricately weaves together themes of cultural divide, power dynamics, and personal identity. By delving into the study notes we have provided, readers can deepen their understanding of Foster’s masterful storytelling and gain valuable insights into the socio-political context of the British Raj. “A Passage to India” is a timeless work that continues to engage and challenge readers, urging us to confront the complexities of human interactions and the enduring impact of colonialism.

Paul Scott: Jewel in the Crown Study Notes


Paul Scott’s novel The Jewel in the Crown is a literary masterpiece that delves into the complex realities of British colonial rule in India during the tumultuous period of the Indian independence movement. With its intricate plot, rich cultural context, and thought-provoking themes, this book has become a must-read for literature enthusiasts and history buffs alike. In this article, we will explore the key elements and insights of this remarkable novel, providing you with comprehensive study notes to deepen your understanding of Paul Scott’s Jewel in the Crown.

Understanding the Context

To fully appreciate the depth and significance of The Jewel in the Crown, it is crucial to grasp the historical background in which the story unfolds. Set in the 1940s in an Indian town called Mayapore, the narrative captures the atmosphere of tension and uncertainty that permeated British India during the twilight years of colonial rule. Against this backdrop, Paul Scott skillfully weaves together a tale of multiple perspectives, exploring themes of identity, power, and the consequences of imperialism.

Plot Summary

The novel revolves around the life of Daphne Manners, a young British woman who forms an unlikely friendship with an Indian man named Hari Kumar. As their relationship develops, they face the disapproval and condemnation of both the British and Indian communities, highlighting the inherent racial and cultural biases that existed during that time.
However, their story takes a dark twist when Daphne is brutally raped, and Hari becomes the prime suspect. The subsequent trial exposes the deeply entrenched prejudices and tensions between the British rulers and the Indian population, further complicating the narrative and adding layers of complexity to the characters’ lives.

Themes Explored

Paul Scott’s The Jewel in the Crown tackles a range of thought-provoking themes that continue to resonate with readers today:

1. Colonialism and Power Dynamics

The novel vividly portrays the power dynamics between the British colonizers and the native Indian population. It explores the ways in which colonial rule perpetuates inequality, marginalization, and the erosion of cultural identities.

2. Identity and Belonging

Through the character of Hari Kumar, Scott delves into the theme of identity and the search for belonging. As a product of mixed heritage, Hari grapples with his sense of self, torn between his Indian roots and Western education.

3. Racism and Prejudice

Scott unravels the deeply ingrained racism and prejudice that existed within the colonial society. The brutal treatment of Daphne Manners and the subsequent trial shed light on the discriminatory attitudes prevalent at the time, highlighting the devastating consequences they have on individuals and communities.

Key Characters

  • Daphne Manners: A young British woman at the center of a scandalous relationship with Hari Kumar.
  • Hari Kumar: An Indian man who faces discrimination due to his mixed heritage and association with Daphne.
  • Ronald Merrick: A British police officer obsessed with maintaining British supremacy and prosecuting Hari.
  • Sarah Layton: Daphne’s close friend, who becomes entangled in the aftermath of the rape and trial.

Study Notes and Analysis

  • The novel makes effective use of flashbacks and multiple narrators to provide different perspectives on the events, enhancing the reader’s understanding and engagement with the story.
  • Scott’s prose is beautifully descriptive, capturing the essence of India’s vibrant culture and landscapes, which adds depth and authenticity to the narrative.
  • The novel raises important questions about the long-term impact of colonialism and the scars it leaves on both the oppressors and the oppressed.
  • The character development is nuanced and multi-dimensional, offering insights into the complex motivations and inner lives of the individuals involved.


Paul Scott’s The Jewel in the Crown remains a timeless literary gem, offering a captivating exploration of the dynamics of power, identity, and the lasting consequences of imperialism. Through its compelling storytelling and thought-provoking themes, this novel continues to shed light on an important chapter in history. By engaging with the study notes provided, readers can delve deeper into the nuances of the narrative and gain a richer understanding of the brilliance of Scott’s work.

Chinua Achebe: Things Fall Apart; Study Notes


Chinua Achebe’s novel, “Things Fall Apart,” is a captivating and thought-provoking literary masterpiece that delves into the complexities of African culture, colonization, and the clash between tradition and modernity. This article aims to provide valuable study notes for readers and students seeking to understand and analyze the profound themes and narrative techniques employed by Achebe in this iconic work.

Chinua Achebe: A Literary Trailblazer

Chinua Achebe, born in Nigeria in 1930, is widely regarded as one of Africa’s most prominent and influential writers. With “Things Fall Apart,” he revolutionized African literature by presenting a nuanced and authentic portrayal of African society in the colonial era. Achebe’s writing style is characterized by its rich storytelling, deep introspection, and vivid depiction of cultural traditions and conflicts.

The Plot and Themes

“Things Fall Apart” follows the life of Okonkwo, a renowned warrior and respected member of the Igbo community in Nigeria. Achebe skillfully weaves a narrative that explores Okonkwo’s struggles with societal expectations, masculinity, and the devastating consequences of colonization.
Through Okonkwo’s story, Achebe raises important thematic questions about the nature of power, the impact of cultural change, and the erosion of traditional values. The novel also delves into the complexities of identity, examining how individuals navigate their sense of self within a rapidly changing world.

Narrative Techniques

Achebe’s narrative technique in “Things Fall Apart” is characterized by its masterful use of language, symbolism, and cultural references. The author employs a blend of vivid descriptions, dialogue, and inner monologues, allowing readers to immerse themselves in the story and gain a deeper understanding of the characters’ motivations and emotions.
Moreover, Achebe strategically integrates Igbo proverbs, folktales, and rituals throughout the novel. These elements not only add authenticity but also serve as powerful literary devices, conveying deeper cultural meanings and lessons.

Impact and Cultural Significance

“Things Fall Apart” has had a profound impact on both African and global literature. It has transcended borders and language barriers, captivating readers around the world with its universal themes and compelling storytelling.
Achebe’s novel sheds light on the complexities of African culture and challenges Western stereotypes, offering a more nuanced and authentic representation of African societies. It has played a crucial role in inspiring generations of African writers and reshaping the literary landscape.

Study Notes for Deeper Understanding

For readers and students looking to explore “Things Fall Apart” in-depth, here are some study notes to enhance your appreciation and analysis of the novel:

  1. Characters: Pay close attention to the diverse cast of characters in the novel, such as Okonkwo, Nwoye, and Mr. Brown. Examine their motivations, relationships, and character development throughout the story.
  2. Colonialism and Cultural Clash: Explore the impact of colonization on the Igbo community and the resulting clash between African traditions and Western influences. Annotate key passages that highlight this theme.
  3. Gender Roles and Masculinity: Analyze the role of gender in the novel and how Okonkwo’s adherence to traditional masculine ideals shapes his actions and interactions with others.
  4. Symbolism and Imagery: Identify and analyze the recurring symbols and imagery in the novel, such as the yam, the locusts, and the fire. Consider their deeper meanings and their contribution to the overall themes of the story.
  5. Writing Style: Take note of Achebe’s writing style, including his use of metaphors, similes, and vivid descriptions. Consider how these literary devices enhance the overall narrative and understanding of the text.
  6. Cultural Context: Research and familiarize yourself with the historical and cultural context of Nigeria during the colonial era. Understanding the social, political, and economic backdrop will provide deeper insights into the events and themes in the novel.


“Things Fall Apart” is much more than a novel. It is a testament to Chinua Achebe’s literary genius and his commitment to portraying Africa’s rich cultural heritage. By delving into the study notes provided in this article, readers and students can gain a deeper understanding of the novel’s themes, narrative techniques, and cultural significance. So, grab a copy of “Things Fall Apart” and embark on a captivating journey into the heart of African literature.

Derek Walcott: A Far Cry from Africa – Study Notes

Keywords: Derek Walcott, A Far Cry from Africa, study notes


In this article, we will delve into the powerful and thought-provoking poem “A Far Cry from Africa” by acclaimed poet Derek Walcott. Through the use of poetic devices, vivid imagery, and complex themes, Walcott presents a profound exploration of identity, colonialism, and the turbulent history of Africa. These study notes will provide valuable insights and analysis to enhance your understanding of this significant work.

Derek Walcott: A Literary Giant

Before we explore “A Far Cry from Africa,” it is essential to understand the greatness of its author, Derek Walcott. Born in 1930 on the island of Saint Lucia, Walcott emerged as one of the most influential Caribbean poets of the 20th century. His poetic prowess earned him numerous accolades, including the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1992. Walcott’s works often encompass themes of post-colonialism, cultural identity, and the intersections of history and personal experience.

Analysis of “A Far Cry from Africa”

The Turmoil of African Identity

In “A Far Cry from Africa,” Walcott grapples with the complexities of his own African heritage and the legacy of colonialism. The poem follows a non-linear narrative, juxtaposing the personal with the historical, as the speaker contemplates the violence and turmoil plaguing Africa. Through powerful imagery and introspection, Walcott raises questions about the individual’s responsibility towards their ancestral homeland.

The Dilemma of Dual Loyalties

Walcott explores the conflicting loyalties experienced by individuals like himself, who are born into a post-colonial world. The poem reflects the struggle to reconcile African roots with the influence of European colonization. Walcott examines these dual loyalties within the context of his own life and the wider historical trauma experienced by Africans and their descendants.

The Paradox of Poetry and Violence

“A Far Cry from Africa” also explores the role of literature and art in the face of violence and upheaval. Walcott contemplates the limitations of poetry in truly capturing the horrors of war and the human suffering it entails. The poem raises the question of whether art, though powerful, can ever fully convey the complexities of history and the visceral experiences of those caught in its tumult.

Key Themes

Colonialism and Identity

Walcott analyzes the dichotomy between European colonialism and the struggle to maintain African cultural and personal identity. The poet navigates the complexities of his heritage, examining how the fractures caused by colonialism continue to shape individual and collective identities.

History, Violence, and Responsibility

The poem grapples with the weight of history, particularly the violent conflicts that have scarred Africa. Walcott questions the obligations and responsibilities of individuals who have been shaped by these events, raising profound ethical questions.

The Limitations of Art

Through the exploration of the relationship between poetry and violence, “A Far Cry from Africa” ponders the limitations of artistic expression. Walcott reflects on the challenges artists face when attempting to capture the complexities of history and the human experience.


Derek Walcott’s “A Far Cry from Africa” stands as a testament to the power of poetry to explore deep-seated personal and historical issues. Through his brilliant use of imagery and literary devices, Walcott challenges readers to confront the complexities of identity, colonialism, and the limitations of art. These study notes provide a valuable guide to understanding and appreciating the profound themes within this remarkable poem.

Wole Soyinka: A Dance of the Forests Study Notes


In this article, we will delve into a comprehensive study of Wole Soyinka’s play, “A Dance of the Forests”. This legendary Nigerian playwright and Nobel Laureate has masterfully crafted a thought-provoking piece that delves deep into themes of African identity, colonization, and cultural heritage. Join us as we explore the intricacies of this enchanting play and uncover its hidden meanings and messages.

The Significance of “A Dance of the Forests”

“A Dance of the Forests” was first performed in 1960 as part of Nigeria’s independence celebrations. This poignant timing adds to the play’s overall significance, as it reflects on Nigeria’s past, present, and future. Soyinka addresses the issue of cultural appropriation and the need for Africans to embrace their heritage in the face of colonization.

Literary Analysis

Exploration of African Identity

At its core, “A Dance of the Forests” serves as an exploration of African identity. Soyinka uses various characters and symbolism to portray the struggles faced by Africans in reclaiming their cultural roots. The play encourages the audience to question the impact of colonization on their identity and reflect on the importance of preserving their heritage.

The Power of Rituals

Rituals play a crucial role throughout the play, highlighting the significance of traditional African customs. Soyinka emphasizes the power of these rituals as a way to connect with one’s ancestors and preserve cultural values. Through the characters’ participation in various rituals, the playwright emphasizes the importance of embracing one’s roots and the healing power of reconnecting with ancestral traditions.

Themes of Colonization

Soyinka tackles the theme of colonization head-on in “A Dance of the Forests”. Through the use of symbolic representations and historical references, the play explores the detrimental effects of colonialism on African society. Soyinka urges the audience to recognize the impact of colonization on their self-perception and advocates for a renewed sense of cultural pride.

Study Notes

For those seeking to delve deeper into the analysis of “A Dance of the Forests,” here are some essential study notes:


  • The Masked Figure: Represents the spirit of colonization and serves as a reminder of the influence of foreign powers.
  • Chorus: Acts as a collective voice, providing commentary on the actions and events of the play.
  • Amope: Symbolizes the oppressed masses and embodies the struggles faced by Africans under colonial rule.


  • Forests: Symbolize the complex history and interconnectedness of African culture.
  • Masks: Represent the concealment of true identity under colonization.

Key Quotes

  1. “Only those who shout first, have spoken.” – This quote highlights the importance of reclaiming one’s voice and asserting cultural identity.
  2. “We are mirrors, where spirits pass, and spirits only.” – A reflection on the transient nature of human existence and the interconnectedness of past, present, and future.

Critical Reception

“A Dance of the Forests” received critical acclaim for its artistic brilliance and thought-provoking themes. It was lauded as a powerful commentary on the impact of colonization on African identity and an urgent call for cultural preservation.


Wole Soyinka’s “A Dance of the Forests” holds a special place in the realm of African literature. Through its exploration of African identity, rituals, and colonization, it provides a profound and insightful commentary on the complexities of African culture. This play serves as a reminder for audiences to embrace their heritage and reclaim their voice in the face of oppression. Let us immerse ourselves in the captivating world of “A Dance of the Forests” and learn from its timeless messages.

by Abdullah Sam
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