Personality and definition principles
‘Personality’ is synonymous with Personality of English. The word Personality originated from the
Greek word ‘Persona’, which means ‘Mask’. At that time personality was used to refer to external qualities. This notion does not explain the full meaning of personality . Some modern definitions of personality are visible:
Definitions of personality
- Guilford: Personality is a coordinated form of qualities.
2. Woodworth: An overall characteristic of a person’s behavior is personality.
3. Marton: Personality is the community of a person’s inborn and acquired nature, basic tendencies, feelings and desires etc.
4. Big and Hunt: Personality is a composite form of behavioral tendencies, expressed in the social adjustment of the individual. 5. Allport (Imp): Personality is related to the physical and internal instincts of human beings, on the basis of which a person adjusts with his environment.
Thus we can conclude that personality is such a dynamic organization of all mental and physical qualities of a person, which determines the adjustment of the person with the environment
Principles of Personality Measurement
TRICK- “Awake common man we have to ask in mind and body”
Note: On the deletion of words, the first word is the name of the principle of personality measurement and the second word is the name of the proponent / promoter / psychologist of that theory.
Extended form of trick:
1. V + CUT = diacritical theory – in Catal
2. Ja + GO = Jive theory – Goldstein
3. A + M = theory of enlightenment – Maslow
4. Person = Person ie this trick “Personality Measurement The principle of “.
- H + in = theistic theory-MacDougal
6. Ask + is = demand theory-Henry Murray
7. Man + to = psychoanalytic theory-Singmond Freud
8. Body + to = anatomy theory-Sheldon
In order to clarify the nature of personality, psychologists have proposed several theories regarding personality. The main principles of personality are as follows:
1. Psychoanalytic theory.
This theory was formulated by Freud. According to him, there are three parts of personality –
(ii). Ego (
iii). Super Ego:
These three components perform well organized work, then the person is called ‘adjusted’. In case of conflict, a person would become unadjusted.
(i). Idam: This is the innate nature. It contains lusts and repressed desires. It wants immediate happiness and satisfaction. It works completely in the unconscious. It is a ‘symbol of bestiality’.
(ii). Ego: It gives inspiration to work in accordance with social beliefs and traditions. It prepares for sacraments, ideals, sacrifices and sacrifices. It is a ‘symbol of divinity’.
(iii). Super Ego: It mediates the struggle between Idam and Param Aham, connecting them to the reality of life, the symbol of humanity, which is related to the real world. In which the person is strong and active, the person succeeds in adjusting. Thus personality is the ‘result of adjustment’ between these three components.
- Body composition theory wasthe originator of this theory. He tried to explain personality on the basis of anatomy and anatomy. It considers a close relationship between anatomy and personality qualities. They divided individuals into three parts – sphericity, rectangle, and elongation on the basis of anatomical formation. Often food with a topography is dear, comfort choice, fond mood, traditionalist, tolerant, social and cheerful in nature. Rectangular ones are often thrilling, domineering, passionate, objective-focused and temper-prone. The tall ones are usually aloof, reclusive, sleepy, lonely, tired and ruthless in nature.
- Special theory:This theory was propounded by Catal. He discovered some common properties expressing personality using a statistical method called factor analysis, which was named the ‘personality trait’. It has some factors – positive character, emotional stability, sociality, growth, etc. According to Katel, personality is the characteristic on the basis of which the behavior of a person in a particular situation is estimated. Personality is characteristic mental compositions. They can be known by the continuity and regularity of a person’s behavior process.
- Demand theory: Henry, the proponent of this theory, believes that a human being is a motivated organism who constantly tries to reduce the stress created in life due to its inherent needs and pressures. The environment generates some demands inside the person. This demand determines the behavior of the person.