In the beginning of the arts context, the English term performance [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] refers to dance, singing, theater, magic, mimicry, juggling, referring to to its performer as a performer (in English : performer ). In the second half of the 20th century, an artistic genre emerged in the United States with specific characteristics called performance art in English , [ 7 ]which would be translated as ” performance art”, [ 8 ] ” performance art “, [ citation needed ] or “performance art” [ 9 ] (not to be confused with performative art ). Some theorists, such as Jorge Glusberg, however, interpret that such artistic expression has its origin in antiquity . [ 10 ]
- 2Performance art
- 2In Brazil
- 3Body Art
- 3Most Notable Artists
- 5See also
- 8External links
Etymology [ edit | edit source code ]
The word has its origins in the old French : parformance , de parformer – accomplir – (to do, to fulfill, to achieve, to conclude) and it may also mean taking some task to your success. Word that originates from Latin , formed by the Latin prefix per mais formáre (form, shape, establish). In its most elementary meaning it can mean starting, doing, executing or developing a certain task.
In 1990 , the English-speaking Encyclopædia Britannica registered the entry of the term performance , only legally, as the act of carrying out what is defined in a contract. A successful performance would be one that would release its subscribers from any other future contractual liability.
The word performance is formed by the prefix of Latin origin per . According to the Aurélio Per Dictionary, it can assume the meaning of movement through , proximity , intensity or totality , as in traversing, enduring, passing through (1st ed.). It has an emphasis function, as in wandering (per- + walking).
The noun form , also of Latin origin, is registered in the Aurélio Dictionary (1st ed.) In seventeen different meanings, highlighting the outer limits of the matter of which a body is constituted, and which gives it a particular shape or configuration . The Etimological Dictionary of António Geraldo da Cunha defines it in another way, as a way in which a thing exists or manifests itself (ex: configuration, shape, exterior feature).
Performance art [ edit | edit source code ]
In the 1960s, performance art or artistic performance emerges as a form of interdisciplinary artistic expression that – like happening – can combine theater , music , poetry or video , with or without an audience. It is characteristic of the second half of the 20th century , but its origins are linked to avant – garde movements , ( Dada , Futurism , Bauhaus , etc.) at the beginning of the 20th century.
It differs from happening in that it is more carefully designed and does not necessarily involve the participation of viewers. In general, it follows a previously defined “script”, which can be reproduced at other times or places. It is performed for an audience that is almost always restricted or even absent and, thus, depends on records – through photographs , videos and / or descriptive memorials – to become known to the public.
Origins [ edit | edit source code ]
One of the first presentations of the performance movement in the 1960s was made by the Fluxus group , through the works of Joseph Beuys and Wolf Vostell . In one of his performances , Beuys spent hours alone at the Schmela Gallery, in Düsseldorf , with his face covered in honey and gold leaves, carrying a dead hare in his arms, to whom he commented details about the exhibited works. At times, the performances of other artists had a direct connection with the works of body art (body art) , especially through the Vienna Activists, in the late 1960s.
In Brazil [ edit | edit source code ]
As the Itaú Cultural Encyclopedia describes, Flávio de Carvalho (1899–1973), was a pioneer in performances from the mid-1950s onwards (for example, the one reported in the book Experiment nº 2). Another reference is given to the Rex Group, created in São Paulo by Wesley Duke Lee (1931–2010), Nelson Leirner (1932), Carlos Fajardo (1941), José Resende (1945), Frederico Nasser (1945), among others, that performs a series of happenings . In one of them Wesley Duke Lee, in 1963, at João Sebastião Bar (some critics point to kinship between the Rex Group and the Fluxus movement).
The production of Hélio Oiticica (1937–1980) from the 1960s – for example the Parangolé – is related to performance, due to its emphasis on execution and “body-behavior”, as defined by the artist. In the 1970s, Hudinilson Jr.’s (1957–2013) proposals are noteworthy. In the following decade, we must mention the Electro performances, multimedia shows designed by Guto Lacaz (1948).
Body Art [ edit | edit source code ]
In some cases, performances linked to body art have become sensory or even masochistic . Chris Burden crawled on a floor covered with broken glass, was shot and was crucified on an automobile.